Ceramic pillow tiles (C) D Friedman Ceramic Tile Floor Properties: Kitchens & Bath

  • FLOOR, CERAMIC TILE - CONTENTS: Guide to choosing & installing types of floor & wall tiles.
    • Selecting Tile for Kitchens & Baths
    • Strength and Water Absorption of Ceramic Tiles
    • Comparison of the Properties of Glazed vs. Unglazed Ceramic Tile
    • Slip Protection vs. Use of Glazed Tiles in Baths or Kitchens
    • Table of PEI Tile Wear-Rating System Groups & Tile Applications
  • CERAMIC TILE, ASBESTOS in? - separate article
  • POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about choosing & installing ceramic tile floors in kitchens & bathrooms

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Kitchen & bath ceramic floor tile properties, choices, recommendations: this article discusses ceramic floor tile choices & properties, and ceramic tile installation details for kitchens and bathrooms.

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Ceramic & Stone Tile Selection & Installation Advice for Bathrooms & Kitchens

Floor tiles (C) D FriedmanThis article series discusses current best design practices for kitchens and bathrooms, including layout, clearances, work space, and accessible kitchen and bathroom layout, clearances, turning space, grab bars, controls, etc.

[Click to enlarge any image]

We include advice on choosing and installing kitchen countertops, cabinets, and kitchen or bathroom flooring, sinks, and other plumbing fixtures and fixture controls such as faucets. A list of kitchen and bath product manufactures and sources is included.

This article includes excerpts or adaptations from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, by Steven Bliss, courtesy of Wiley & Sons.

As detailed in Chapter 6 of Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction: A quality ceramic tile job starts with proper framing to support the tile and the selection of tile materials that are right for the application and compatible with each other.

  • Mosaic tile (C) D FriedmanThe substructure must be stiff enough to support the tile without excess movement or deflection, and the tile, backerboard, adhesive, grout, and any waterproofing membrane must be compatible with one another.

    If all these products are installed following the manufacturer’s instructions as well as the specifications of the Tile Council of America (TCA), the result should be an attractive and durable job.

    Finally, it is critical that the installer leave the required expansion joints at the room perimeter, tub lips, and other places the tile is restrained—the source of many tile callbacks.

    Selecting Tile for Kitchens & Baths

    A wide array of tiles are readily available. In addition to aesthetic concerns, tiles vary in strength, water absorption, scratch resistance, ease of cleaning, and slip resistance.

    In general, look for harder tiles for floor and counter applications, and tiles low in water absorption for wet applications. Beyond looking at the specifications, it is a good idea to test a sample of tile for scratch resistance, scuffing, and ease of cleaning, using real pots and pans, shoes, and household cleansers.

    Strength and Water Absorption of Ceramic Tiles

    The body of a ceramic tile, also called the bisque, is made by heating a mixture of clay and other additives in a kiln. In general, the longer the clay is fired and the higher the temperature, the denser and stronger the tile will be and the more impervious to water absorption.

    Nonporous tiles that absorb little water will perform better in wet applications than porous tiles. The tile bisques manufactured according to ANSI standards are rated from nonvitreous to impervious (see Table 6-4).

    [Click any image or table to see an enlarged version with additional detail, commentary & source citation.]

    Table 6-4: Tile properties and PEI wear-rating system  (C) J Wiley S Bliss

    Comparison of the Properties of Glazed vs. Unglazed Ceramic Tile

    Mexican clay tiles (C) Daniel FriedmanWith the exception of quarry tile, terra-cotta, and some porcelains and mosaics, most tiles come glazed. The glaze consists of a mix of silica and pigments that is fused to the surface of the tile at high temperatures, creating a glasslike coating.

    Glazes provide decorative color and protect the surface of porous tiles from absorbing water and stains. How well a glaze resists abrasion and shows scratches depends on several factors:

    • Temperature: Glazes fired hotter and longer tend to be harder and more scratch-resistant.
    • Color: Light-colored glazes tend to be harder than dark colors and conceal scratches better.
    • Gloss level: Matte-finished glazes tend to be harder than high gloss and also conceal scratches better.

    Unglazed tiles show the natural color of the clay, although some unglazed mosaics have pigment added to the clay.

    Unglazed tiles may need to be sealed to prevent staining during grouting or in use on floors, counters, and other applications prone to staining. Sealing is generally done before grouting. If used on a counter, make sure the sealer is suitable for use around food.

    Many manufacturers now rate the abrasion resistance of their tile using the guidelines of the Porcelain Enamel Institute (PEI). The PEI system rates tiles from 1 to 5 as shown in Table 6-5.

    Select Grade 3 or higher where scratching of the tile surface is a concern.

    Table 6-5: Tile properties and PEI wear-rating system  (C) J Wiley S Bliss

    Slip Protection vs. Use of Glazed Tiles in Baths or Kitchens: Coefficient of Friction

    Many glazed floor tiles become dangerously slippery when wet. This is a concern wherever floors are subject to wetting, but particularly on shower floors and bathroom floors near tubs and showers.

    In general, unglazed tiles or textured patterns will be less slippery. Some tile has a special nonskid surface made by adding an abrasive grit to the tile face or glaze. The downside is that nonglossy surfaces are somewhat harder to keep clean.

    Many tile manufacturers use a coefficient of friction (COF) to rate the traction a tile provides.

    While there are no national standards that specify a required COF, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) recommends a minimum COF of .60 on accessible walking routes.

    Experts also recommend a minimum COF of .60 for shower stalls, wet bathroom floors, and other wet areas.

    Also see flooring basics at FLOOR DESIGNS: KITCHEN & BATH and for alternatives to ceramic tile floors see FLOOR, STONE, GRANITE, MARBLE, AGGLOMERATE and also FLOOR, RESILIENT VINYL or CORK.

    For information about whether or not ceramic floor tile contains asbestos, see CERAMIC TILE, ASBESTOS in?.

    Ceramic Tile-Setting Material Manufacturer List

    • Bonsal American www.bonsal.com Setting compounds, grouts, preformed shower pans, curbs, and niches. Also, distributor of backerboards, isolation membranes, and other tile-setting products
    • Color Caulk, div. of Roanoke Companies Group www.colorcaulk.com Color-matched caulking
    • Custom Building Products www.custombuildingproducts.com Elastomeric and liquid-applied membranes, self-leveling underlayments, setting compounds, and grouts
    • Laticrete International www.laticrete.com Trowel-on membranes, self-leveling underlayments, setting compounds, grouts, and sealants
    • Noble Company www.noblecompany.com CPE sheet membranes, trowel-on membranes, clamping ring drains, and preformed slopes, niches, and curbs
    • Mapei www.mapei.com Trowel-on and sheet membranes, self-leveling underlayments, setting compounds, grouts, and color-matched sanded caulks
  • Ceramic Tile Backerboard Producers

    • Custom Building Products www.custombuildingproducts.com Wonderboard cement backerboard, Easyboard cement and polystyrene lightweight backerboard, and Rhinoboard fiber-cement backerboard
    • Georgia-Pacific Gypsum www.gp.com/build Denshield gypboard backer with glass-matt facing
    • James Hardie Building Products www.jameshardie.com Fiber-cement backerboard
    • National Gypsum www.nationalgypsum.com Permabase lightweight cement and polystyrene backerboard
    • Schluter Systems www.schluter.com Kerdi tile membrane goes directly over drywall or other substrates
    • T. Clear Corp./Fin Pan Inc. www.finpan.com Util-A-Crete lightweight concrete backerboard
    • U.S. Gypsum www.usg.com Durock cement backerboard
    • W. R. Bonsal www.bonsal.com Extruded polystyrene backerboard with fiberglassreinforced cement facing
  • Kitchen & Bath Industry Associations

    • Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers(AHAM) www.aham.org
    • National Kitchen and Bath Association (NKBA) www.nkba.org
    • Ceramic Tile Institute of America www.ctioa.org
    • Home Ventilation Institute (HVI) www.hvi.org
    • Marble Institute of America www.marble-institute.com Porcelain Enamel Institute (PEI) www.porcelainenamel.com
    • Tile Council of America (TCA) www.tileusa.com

    -- Adapted with permission from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction.

    For information about whether or not ceramic floor tile contains asbestos, see CERAMIC TILE, ASBESTOS in?.

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