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STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS & DEFECTS
ARCHITECTURE & BUILDING COMPONENT ID
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
COLUMNS & POSTS, DEFECTS
CONNECTORS, FASTENERS, TIES
DECK & PORCH CONSTRUCTION
DEFINITIONS of Mobile Home, Doublewide, Modular, Panelized
DEFINITIONS of ENGINEERED WOOD OSB LVL etc
DISASTER BUILDING INSPECTION & REPAIR
EARTHQUAKE DAMAGED FOUNDATIONS
FIRE DAMAGE vs MOLD DAMAGE
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FOOTING & FOUNDATION DRAINS
FOUNDATION CRACKS & DAMAGE GUIDE
FRAMING DAMAGE, INSPECTION, REPAIR
GRADING, DRAINAGE & SITE WORK
HOUSE PARTS, DEFINITIONS
INSECT INFESTATION / DAMAGE
KIT HOMES, Aladdin, Sears, Wards, Others
LOG HOME GUIDE
MOBILE HOMES, DOUBLEWIDES, TRAILERS
MODULAR HOME CONSTRUCTION
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
PORCH CONSTRUCTION & SCREENING
PRE-CUT & KIT HOMES
RETAINING WALL DESIGNS, TYPES, DAMAGE
ROT, FUNGUS, INSECT DAMAGE
SINKHOLES, WARNING SIGNS
STAIRS, RAILINGS, LANDINGS, RAMPS
STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION
STRESS SKIN INSULATED PANELS
STRUCTURAL WOOD ASSESSMENT
TIMBER FRAMING, ROT
TRUSSES, Floor & Roof
WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS
Framing connectors - Joist Hangers, Brackets, Connectors: this article explains the proper selection and installation of structural connectors, brackets & tie plates used to connect deck or porch framing and support members. USP connectors such as joist hangers, joist angles, joist supports, stud shoes, skew hangers, and face mount hangers used for connecting these hangers and connectors are described, their uses explained, and their applications and specifications linked. Both galvanized steel and stainless steel joist hangers, connectors, & brackets may be applied.
Green links show where you are. © Copyright 2013 InspectAPedia.com, All Rights Reserved. Author Daniel Friedman.
How to Choose the Correct Joist, Beam & Post Connectors, Brackets, Joist Hangers & Other Structural Connectors for Decks & Porches
A Photo Guide to Metal Joist Hangers, Bolts, & other Connectors Used in Deck, Porch & other Building Framing Construction
Notching a 6x6 Post to Support & Connect to a Deck Beam
Using a scab to tie deck posts to girders
Joist Hangers and Steel Connectors Used for Wood Framing & Deck Construction
Toe-Nails Instead of Joist Hangers are OK for Framing Lumber Butt-Joint Connections, but Don't Over-Nail
Installation Details for Steel Framing Connectors for I-Joists
As we illustrate its installation here, the connector is nailed over the side of the I-Joist, then to the wall top plate, then to the wall stud below, forming a very strong connector where these I-Joists were used as roof supports.
Our first photograph (left) shows ;that we installed the specified number of joist-hanger nails (minimum of five) through the connector end and into the top of the I-Joist.
Our two photos below illustrate the required position and number of nails for the extended connector strap as it passes over the wall top plate and along the side of the I-Joist where it was nailed to the top chord tie and to the block inserted at the end of the I-Joist (below left) and then over the top plate (4 nails) and finally along a wall stud inner face (3 more nails) giving us 7 fasteners in the I-Joist itself.
An additional 4 nails into the top plate and at least 3 (depending on how the strap aligns) into the wall stud) give us 7 fasteners into the structural wall below. If additional nails are needed into the wall stud the strap can be bent around the stud side for that purchase point.
This I-joist installation was for framing a low-slope roof in new construction.
The layout required some planning and thought to assure that the I-joists were placed over wall studs in a location to permit the strapping of I-Joist to both the wall top plate and the wall stud using a single strap.
If your plans don't work out quite so precisely you will still be OK but if your I-Joist connector straps don't line up to tie all three wall components together at once, you may be required to install additional ties to connect certain wall studs to the building top plate.
At left we illustrate installation of the same utility framing connector strap at the opposite side of the same building as the structure above. In this location the lower ends of the framing connectors were nailed from the exterior of the building, through the OSB structural sheathing and into wall studs below.
[In my [DJF] OPINION, nailing the strapping to OSB alone, that is, not also through it into the wall studs, is not so strong.] Photos courtesy of Daniel Friedman & Galow Homes.
I-Joist Hangers for Flat or Angled Framing Between Walls Rather than On Top of Walls
Above we illustrated using steel framing connectors to tie I-Joists to a wall top plate and stud for the case of I-joists that run on top of the building walls. Simpson Strong Tie and other manufacturers provide straight (for floors) or angled I-Joist hangers for framing I-Joists between building walls such as for installation of a floor, a flat roof, or a roof with no overhang.
Machine-Threaded Bolts Used for Deck Construction
Drill pilot holes 1/32 to 1/16 inch larger than the diameter of the bolt so it will slide through easily.
After drilling, saturate the hole with preservative. Use large washers under both the head and nut. Re tighten after the first year, since the wood may have shrunk.
Photo at left courtesy of Mark Morsching., EverFlashing.
Lag Bolts Used for Deck Construction
So, for example, a 1/2-inch lag would get a 5/16-inch pilot hole for the threaded portion; a 3/8-inch diameter lag would get a 1/4-inch diameter pilot hole.
After drilling, saturate the pilot hole with wood preservative. It is also important that at least half the length of the lag is threaded into solid wood.
For example, driving a 5-inch lag through a 4x4 post into a 2x joist will produce a weak connection with only 1 1/2 inches of anchoring. Instead, the lag screw should go through the 2x and be threaded into the thicker 4x4.
Use a large washer under the head, and re tighten after the first year in case materials have shrunk. Our photo (above left) illustrates use of a lag bolt to connect the deck ledger to the building structure by bolting to the rim joist. Notice that the installer seems to have omitted flashing over the ledger board.
Suppliers of Joist, Post & Beam Hangers & Connectors & the Nails or Fasteners used With Them
Stainless steel or galvanized steel joist hangers, connectors and similar products are produced by Simpson Strong Tie, Incom, Schuler Manufacturing, State Metals, Daytona Bolt & Nut, Hutchinson, Cleveland Steel, Tamlyn, U.S. Lumber, Hohmann & Barnard, and Direct Tools & Fasteners as well as Paslode, Grip Rite joist hanger nails and other specialty nails.
-- Adapted with permission from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction.
Also see DECK COLLAPSE Case Study (collapse of a new code-approved deck) and DECK FLASHING LEAKS, ROT Case Study for an example of an older deck with rot and collapse due to improper construction and missing building flashing.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about choosing & using framing connectors for wood frame construction
Questions & answers or comments about what types of joist & beam hangers & connectors are required for deck constructoin: joist hangers, connectors, steel tie plates, etc. .
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Technical Reviewers & References
Related Topics, found near the top of this page suggest articles closely related to this one.