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Skylight energy efficiency guide: this article explains the energy efficiency of skylights and skylight energy efficiency ratings and factors such as solar gain and the use of low-E skylight glazing. We also discuss the effect of skylight orientation - which roof slope etc., and skylight condensation problems.
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This article group discusses the selection and installation of skylights, including choosing a skylight, how to install the skylight, constructing the skylight well or chute, skylight controls, and skylight shades or screens.
We also discuss skylight condensation and special skylight products such as light tubes. In this article series we discuss the selection and installation of windows and doors, following best construction and design practices for building lighting and ventilation, with attention to the impact on building heating and cooling costs, indoor air quality, and comfort of occupants. We review the proper installation details for windows and doors, and we compare the durability of different window and door materials and types. Our photo (page top) shows a skylight with a history of leaks and blob-on patching with roof cement, caulk, and chewing gum.
See WINDOWS & DOORS our home page for window and door information, and also see WINDOW TYPES - Photo Guide for a photographic guide to window and door types and architectural styles. Ourlinks listed at the "More Reading" links at the bottom of this article provide in-depth articles on window and door selection, inspection, installation, problem diagnosis, and repair.
Over glazing with skylights [putting in too many skylights] can increase heat loss in cold, cloudy climates, but the biggest impact of excessive roof glass in most climates is overheating, increasing both peak and annual cooling loads and making people uncomfortably hot.
Because the sun is high in summer and low in winter, skylights tend to capture solar gains at just the wrong time. For example, an unvented skylight set at a 30- to 40-degree slope captures four times as much solar-heat gain in midsummer as a similarly sized vertical window.
To put this in perspective, at noontime on June 21, two single-glazed, 6-square-foot skylights facing south produce nearly as much heat as a 1,000-watt electric space heater. West-facing skylights produce almost as much heat in summer.
Fortunately, the new spectrally selective coatings (see Spectrally Selective Low-E Windows), cut solar gains by nearly 50% compared with clear double glazing, greatly reducing the cooling penalty of skylights.
Still, there is no sense in using more skylights than is needed to produce comfortable light levels, typically 5 to 7% of the floor area being lit. Where overheating is a possibility, use a venting skylight to change the glass angle and exhaust any heat buildup.
Also see SUNGAIN, FILMS, LOW-E GLASS.
While high-tech glass can significantly reduce solar gains, it is still possible to over glaze and overheat a room. For that reason, south- and west-facing skylights should be kept to a minimum.
Also, south-facing skylights produce a lot of glare from direct summer sun. North-facing skylights consistently provide even, diffused lighting with little heat gain. East-facing skylights generate moderate heat gain on summer mornings, which could pose a problem in hot climates if overused.
The same double-glazing has a higher U-value (lower R-value) when used in a skylight than in a vertical window. Increased convection between the two panes of glass in a horizontal or low-slope orientation causes the greater heat loss in skylights.
Starting in mid 2004, all skylight manufacturers using NFRC labels started reporting U-values measured at a slope of 20 degrees. For older skylights rated at a 90-degree angle, multiply the U-value by 1.2 to get the 20-degree equivalent. This results in a 20% higher U-value.
Because warm moist air is carried upward by convection currents, skylights are often one of the first places to develop condensation. This can lead to dripping and staining of the frame, well, or furnishings below.
The best defense against skylight condensation is to choose high R-value glazing with warm-edge spacers. Good insulation of the skylight well also helps by keeping the surrounding area warmer. Several manufacturers offer skylights with integral condensation gutters, a helpful feature in cold climates.
Condensation Resistance of Windows: Measurements
The NFRC (National Fenestration Council) in discussing solar heat gain at windows, describes the Condensation Resistance of Windows (CR) as follows:
Andersen Windows and Doors www.andersenwindows.com Skylights and roof windows with exterior sash clad with glass-fiber-reinforced material
Milgard Windows and Doors www.milgard.com Skylights with aluminum frames (thermal break optional) with vinyl subframes on operable models; optional motorized controls with rain sensor
Pella Windows and Doors www.pella.com Wood interior, aluminum exterior, optional motorized controls, and manual or motorized fabric-pleated shades
Roto Frank of America www.roofwindows.com Wood interior, aluminum exterior, optional motorized controls, and manual or motorized fabric-pleated shades; Sweet16 model fits 16 in. o.c. framing
Velux America Inc. www.velux.com Skylights and roof windows with wood interior and aluminum-clad exterior. Options include insect screens, blinds, motorized controls and shades with rain sensor, electrochromatic glass, and flashing kits for metal and tile roofs and mulled units
Skylight Light Tube Manufacturers & Sources
SolaTube www.solatube.com Light tubes from 10 to 21 in. in diameter; options include electrical lighting, daylight dimmer, and integral bath fan
Sun-Tek Skylights www.sun-tek.com Light tubes from 10 to 21 in. in diameter; options include electrical lighting and multitube Spyder skylight
Velux America Inc. www.velux.com Sun Tunnel light tubes from 14 to 22 in. in diameter with flexible or rigid tubes
American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) www.aamanet.org
Efficient Windows Collaborative www.efficientwindows.org
National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) www.nfrc.org Sustainable by Design www.susdesign.com
Shareware calculators for sun angles, solar heat gain, and shading
Window and Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA) www.wdma.com
-- Adapted and paraphrased, edited, and supplemented, with permission from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction.
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