Photograph of  this overheating and improperly-made aluminum to copper pigtail splice. Photograph of  this overheating and improperly-made aluminum to copper pigtail splice.

Complete Aluminum Wiring Bibliography
     


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Aluminum electrical wiring hazards research bibliography & references: bibliography of publicly available articles, pamphlets, resources providing information about aluminum electrical wiring.

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Aluminum Wiring Bibliography

ALUMINUM WIRING HAZARDS & REPAIRS - see detailed links at page top & left

Recommendations for the Homeowner/Occupant

  • "The Trouble With Aluminum Wiring," Consumer Reports, January, 1981, p. 42
  • "The Use of Aluminum Conductors with Electrical Wiring Devices in Electrical Wiring Systems," Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062, Issued March 1973, reissued July 1980
  • J. Aronstein, "Reducing the Fire Hazard in Aluminum-Wired Homes," Wright-Malta Corporation, Ballston Spa, NY, Jan. 25, 1982
  • Reducing the Fire Hazards in Aluminum-Wired Homes
  • "Is YOUR Aluminum Wiring Safe?" article discussing safety claims made without looking at the wiring, J. Aronstein, 11/21/95
  • CPSC Publication 516 on Aluminum Wiring

Information on Aluminum Wiring for Home Inspectors

  • D.J. Friedman, "Safety Considerations for the Electrical Inspector," The ASHI Technical Journal of home inspection and in-service building component failures, Vol. 2 No. 1, Winter, 1992
  • D.J. Friedman, "Aluminum Wiring Poses Potential Fire Hazard," The Journal of Light Construction, June 1996 [Reprinted in the ASHI Reporter, January 1997, p.10-11]

Field Surveys of Aluminum Wiring Hazards & Failures

  • "National Controlled Study of Relative Risk of Overheating of Aluminum Compared with Copper Wired Electrical Receptacles in Homes and Laboratory," Executive Summary. Prepared for U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Report #F-C4812-01, Franklin Research Center, Philadelphia, PA, April 20, 1979
  • R. Newman and W.H. King, Jr., "Pilot Survey of Branch Wiring Systems in Montgomery County, Maryland," U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Sept., 1977
  • J. Aronstein, "Summary Report, Study of Overheating of Aluminum-Wired Electrical receptacles in Scarborough, Toronto, Homes," Wright-Malta Corporation, Ballston Spa, NY, Jan. 11, 1982

Aluminum Wiring Connectors/Connections

  • H. Dupre, "The Problems Involved in Designing Connectors for Aluminum Cable," Misc. Paper no. 51-325, AIEE Fall General Meeting, October, 1951.
  • J. Aronstein and W.E. Campbell, "Overheating Failures of Aluminum-Wired Special Service Connectors," IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Mfg. Tech., V. CHMT-6 No. 1, Mar. 1983
  • N.T. Bond, "Reliability in Electrical Terminations on Aluminum Conductors," Electrical Products Div., Alcoa Conductor Products Co., Alcoa Laboratories, Massena, NY.
  • C.W. Zimmerer and F.Neumer, "Aluminum Building Wires and Connectors," Bulletin of Research, No. 48, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Sept. 1954
  • J. Aronstein and W.E. Campbell, "The influence of Corrosion Inhibitor and Surface Abrasion on the Failure of Aluminum-Wired Twist-on Connections," IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Mfg. Tech., V. CHMT-7 No. 1, March, 1984.
  • R. Schubert, "Erratic Behavior of Al/Al Wire Junctions," Elecrical Contacts - 1986, Proceedings of the 32nd IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Boston, 1986.
  • "Test of 'Old Technology' Aluminum Wire With Twist-On Connectors," Project Report CPSC-C-79-0079, Task II, for U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY, November 23, 1981
  • J. Aronstein, "Overheating Failures of Presently-Listed Aluminum Wiring Connection Combinations Within Rated Service Conditions". Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY, November 23, 1981
  • R.L. Hicks, "Pigtail Splicing Connections for Baseboard Heaters and Similar Cyclic Loads," Ontario Hydro, Research Division

Failure Mechanisms of Aluminum Wiring

  • M. Braunovic, "Fretting Corrosion Between Aluminum and Different Contact Materials," Electrical Contacts - 1977, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Chicago, 1977.
  • M. Braunovic, "Effect of Fretting on the Contact Resistance of Copper, Aluminum, and Nickel-Coated Aluminum Wire Connections," Wear, V. 112, 1986.
  • N.T. Bond, D.L. Robinson, and M. Mohajery, "Fundamental Considerations of Aluminum Electrical Contact Interfaces," Elecrical Contacts - 1977, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Chicago, 1977.
  • J. Aronstein, "Electromigration Failure of Aluminum Contact Junctions," Elecrical Contacts - 1995, Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Montreal, 1995.
  • J. Aronstein, "Conduction in Failing Aluminum Connections," Electrical Contacts - 1990, Proceedings of the 36th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical
  • Contacts meeting jointly with the 15th International Conference on Electrical Contacts," Montreal, 1990.
  • M. Leger, "Metallurgical Analysis of Failed CO/ALR Devices," Ontario Hydro, #78-54-K, Ontario, Canada, February, 1978.
  • J. Aronstein, "Failure of Aluminum Connections in Residential Applications," Elecrical Contacts - 1991, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Chicago, 1991.
  • J. Aronstein, "AC and DC Electromigration in Aluminum Contact Junctions," Electrical Contacts - 1996, Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Holm Conference on
  • Electrical Contacts meeting jointly with the 18th International Conference on Electrical Contacts," Chicago, September 1996

Nickel Plated Aluminum Wire

  • H.O. Hansson, "Sinipal: Swedish-bred Aluminum Substitute for Copper Wire," Wire and Wire Products, September, 1970.
  • J. Aronstein and T.K. Hare, "Evaluation and Analytical Electron Microscopy Investigation of a Plated Aluminum Wire for Branch Circuit Applications," IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, V. 11, No.2, June 1988, p. 218-226

Copper-Clad Aluminum Wire

  • J.C. Fan, "An Examination of Copper Clad Aluminum Conductor for Circuit Size Wiring," Texas Instruments Inc., Metallurgical Materials Div., Wire Products Dept., Attleboro, MA.

Alloy Aluminum Wire

  • J. Aronstein and W.E. Campbell, "Evaluation of an Aluminum Conductor Material for Branch Circuit Applications," IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Mfg. Tech., V. CHMT-8 No. 1, Mar. 1985

Connector/connection standards and test methods

  • UL Standard 1567, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook IL (CO/ALR Wiring Device Terminals for Aluminum Wire)
  • UL Standard 486C, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook IL (Splicing Connectors for Aluminum Wire)
  • ASTM B812-90, "Standard Test Method for Resistance to Environmental Degradation of Electrical Pressure Connections Involving Aluminum and Intended for Residential Applications," ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA

Industry Handbooks

"Aluminum Building Wire Installation Manual and Design Guide," The Aluminum Association, Inc.

Government Agency Documents

  • R. Newman, "Hazard Analysis of Aluminum Wiring," April, 1975, U.S. CPSC, NIIC-0600-75-H006
  • J.T. Wilson, "Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Aluminum Wiring," Ontario, Canada, March, 1979
  • J. Aronstein, "Tests of 'Old Technology' Aluminum Wire," Wright-Malta Corp. Project Report CPSC-C-81-1418, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC, Feb. 10, 1983

Aluminum Electrical Wiring Hazards, Inspection, Repair Procedure documents available on Internet:

ALUMINUM WIRING HAZARDS & REPAIRS
ALUMINUM WIRE FAILURE REPORTS
ALUMINUM WIRING IDENTIFICATION
ALUMINUM WIRING RENTAL HOME ADVICE
ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR METHODS
  ALUMINUM WIRE CHANGEOUT
  ALUMINUM WIRE AlumiConn
  ALUMINUM WIRE COPALUM
  ALUMINUM WIRE SPLICES
  ALUMINUM WIRE GROUNDS
  ALUMINUM WIRE REPAIR SPLICE SPACE
  REDUCE THE AL WIRE RISK: DETAILS

ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR ELECTRICIANS
ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR, Other Products
ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR COALR & CU-AL DEVICES

ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR NOT-Recommended
  COALR or / CU/AL Devices
  HARBOR FREIGHT CRIMPER
  IDEAL-65 Purple Twister
  MARRETTE B-Cap Connector
  SCOTCHLOK 3-M Connector
  Wiring Repair Methods CPSC Meeting

ALUMINUM WIRING SAFETY ASSESSMENT
  Aluminum Wiring - CPSC Publication #516-PDF
  Aluminum Wiring - CPSC Publication #516-HTML
  ALUMINUM-WIRED HOMES, REDUCE THE HAZARD

ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR METHODS
  ALUMINUM WIRE CHANGEOUT
  ALUMINUM WIRE AlumiConn
  ALUMINUM WIRE COPALUM
  ALUMINUM WIRE SPLICES
  ALUMINUM WIRE GROUNDS
  ALUMINUM WIRE REPAIR SPLICE SPACE
  REDUCE THE AL WIRE RISK: DETAILS

ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR ELECTRICIANS
ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR, Other Products
ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR COALR & CU-AL DEVICES
ALUMINUM WIRING REPAIR NOT-Recommended
  COALR or / CU/AL Devices
  HARBOR FREIGHT CRIMPER
  IDEAL-65 Purple Twister
  MARRETTE B-Cap Connector
  SCOTCHLOK 3-M Connector
  Wiring Repair Methods CPSC Meeting
BOOKSTORE - ELECTRICAL

DIRECTORY OF ELECTRICIANS - Aluminum Wiring
DIRECTORY OF ELECTRICIANS - FPE Zinsco
Aluminum Wiring Bibliography

Fire Ignition/Fire investigation

  • J. Aronstein, "Fire Due to Overheating Aluminum Wired Branch Circuit Connections," Electrical Safety Conference, Univ. of Wisconsin-Extension, Madison, WI, April 7, 1981

Contact Addresses for Requesting Information

  • The American Society of Home Inspectors, ASHI 847-290-1919 85 West Algonquin Road 847-290-1920 FAX Arlington IL 60005-4423 http://inspectapedia.com/home_inspection/ashihome.htm
  • The Aluminum Association, 900 19th St. NW, Washington DC 20006
  • NFPA - (National Fire Protection Association) 1 Batterymarch Park P.O. Box 9101 Quincy, MA 02269-9101
  • UL - Underwriters Laboratories Inc. 333 Pfingsten Road Northbrook, IL 60062
  • NEMA -National Electrical Manufacturers Association 2101 L Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20037 202-457-8400 FAX 202-457-8411
  • Internat. Assoc. of Elect. Insp. 214-235-1455 901 Waterfall Way, Suite 602 214-235-3855 Richardson, TX 75080 6226,563 CIS
  • The Journal of Light Construction 802-434-4747 RR2 Box 146 jlc@bginet.com Richmond VT 05477
  • Also AIEE - tbd.
  • FAQs below discusses field reports of problems & solutions for this topic

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