Free Encyclopedia of Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, Repair
Ask a Question or Search InspectAPedia
InspectAPedia ® Home
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
BACKDRAFTING HEATING EQUIPMENT
CARBON MONOXIDE - CO
CHIMNEY COMPONENT DEFINITIONS
CHIMNEY FIRE ACTION / PREVENTION
COMBUSTION GASES & PARTICLE HAZARDS
COMBUSTION PRODUCTS & IAQ
FLAME COLOR, BLUE vs YELLOW COMBUSTION
HOME HEATING SAFETY
Moisture / Frost Damaged Chimney
ODORS & SMELLS DIAGNOSIS & CURE
Safety Recalls, Chimneys, Vents, Heaters
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING EXTERIORS
WOOD, COAL STOVES & FIREPLACES
WOOD STOVE SAFETY
How to fix chimney separation or movement: this article describes the common repair methods used to handle a chimney which is leaning, cracked, or separating from a building. We outline common repair methods used to stabilize loose or leaning chimneys. These articles on chimneys and chimney safety provide detailed suggestions describing how to perform a thorough visual inspection of chimneys for safety and other defects. Chimney inspection methods and chimney repair methods are also discussed.
Green links show where you are. © Copyright 2013 InspectAPedia.com, All Rights Reserved. Author Daniel Friedman.
What could have been done to repair the chimney shown above?
Which of these alternatives makes most sense depends on other factors such as the condition of the heating equipment and the desire to have a traditional masonry fireplace.
Strapping a masonry chimney to the building in an attempt to stabilize a tipping or leaning chimney it is unlikely to work, especially if the root cause of chimney movement is an inadequate or tipping chimney foundation. The total weight or mass of a masonry chimney is enormous. Trying to hold this weight in place by strapping the flue to the building structure risks bending or moving the structural wall in many instances. (If a chimney has a sound footing or a soundly-repaired footing and is to be tied to the building as a retrofit repair, the building tie-in may need to pass through the building rather than just being connected to the building wall abutting the chimney.)
It is normal to tie a masonry chimney to the building to prevent movement. Those ties, if present, are likely to be hidden between the chimney side facing the building and the building wall itself. That lateral chimney support stabilizes a chimney that has a sound footing. But lateral support cannot normally stabilize a chimney whose footing is missing or tipping.
Also See Bracing & Support for Chimneys.
Chimney reconstruction: if the chimney has moved more than a very small amount, perhaps less than 3/16", some chimney repair companies may suggest that the chimney should be disassembled and rebuilt correctly. That is because they are worried that internal cracks in the masonry flue have made the chimney a flue gas and fire hazard.
Certainly if a chimney has moved significantly away from a building it is almost certainly dangerous, risking a building fire and flue gas leakage.
We provide a series of articles on diagnosing chimney cracks and movement include Chimney Movement - Causes, then Chimney Movement - Ongoing vs Static where we describe determining whether chimney movement is ongoing. Readers diagnosing chimney movement and foundation problems should also see Chimney Leaning, Separation, Movement-Outdoors, and Chimney Leaning, Separation, Movement. Also see Chimney Crack & Collapse Risks. Repairs for moving chimneys are discussed at Leaning Chimney Repair Methods.
Chimney top repairs: if the damage to a chimney top or flue is confined to the area from the roof surface up to the chimney top, it is common to remove and rebuild the chimney in that location. Make sure that the new chimney top has a proper chimney cap and rain cap as well as an expansion joint/seal around the masonry flue at the chimney cap. See Chimney Top & Clay Flue Tile Repairs for details.
Chimney foundation repairs: If a leaning chimney is relatively un-damaged, and if the movement is traced to ongoing chimney foundation settlement, it might be possible to use helical piers, driven pins, or other foundation repair methods to repair the chimney.
Flue relining a moving chimney: Some chimney repair companies may suggest stabilizing a chimney flue that has moved, followed by installation of a flue liner in order to assure that the flue is fire and gas safe. See Re-Lining Choices for Masonry Chimneys.
Fireplace movement repairs: If you are considering this repair be sure that your mason and chimney company inspect any fireplaces carefully. we have observed movement and cracking in the firebox which made the fireplace and hearth serious fire hazards themselves, independent of questions about the safety of the chimney flue. We have observed fireplace hearth settlement repairs obtained by jacking the settled hearth from below, combined with careful inspection and sealing.
If the fireplace itself has settled or tipped, typically also causing chimney separation, it may be possible to add support and jack the fireplace base level using slab jacking or foundation settlement repair methods. However the risk of this approach is leaving a damaged and unsafe fireplace or chimney flue in place. Very thorough and expert inspection is required and chimney relining may also be needed. The cost of all of those steps may be competitive with reconstruction of the fireplace and chimney. See Fireplace Safety Hazards.
Metal chimney repairs: if the chimney is a factory built or metal chimney and flue, most often the proper repair is complete replacement of damaged or rusted chimney parts. An exception, of course, is the replacement of a damaged or missing chimney rain cap or above-roof components. See Replacement Components for Metal Chimneys for details.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Questions & answers or comments about how leaning, separated-from-building, or moving or cracked chimneys are repaired.
Ask a Question or Enter Search Terms in the InspectApedia search box just below.
Technical Reviewers & References
Related Topics, found near the top of this page suggest articles closely related to this one.