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Free Encyclopedia of Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, Repair
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
BACKDRAFTING HEATING EQUIPMENT
CARBON MONOXIDE - CO
CHIMNEY COMPONENT DEFINITIONS
CHIMNEY FIRE ACTION / PREVENTION
COMBUSTION GASES & PARTICLE HAZARDS
COMBUSTION PRODUCTS & IAQ
FLAME COLOR, BLUE vs YELLOW COMBUSTION
HOME HEATING SAFETY
Moisture / Frost Damaged Chimney
ODORS & SMELLS DIAGNOSIS & CURE
Safety Recalls, Chimneys, Vents, Heaters
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING EXTERIORS
WOOD, COAL STOVES & FIREPLACES
WOOD STOVE SAFETY
Spalling damage on masonry chimneys: This article defines chimney spalling and describes the causes and significance of spalling on masonry chimney exteriors. We show examples of different types of brick spalling or concrete block spalling ("cinder block spalling") damage and we explain its causes.
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Spalling describes the chipping off or loss of surface from a masonry material. Spalling can occur on a brick chimney such as the one shown at left, on masonry block chimneys, and on other masonry surfaces such as sidewalks or foundation walls. The chimney is also "supported" by a metal strap tying it to the home.
In our photo at above left you can see that leaks at the chimney top from an improperly sealed chimney crown have sent water into the chimney structure. Not only has the face broken away from some of the bricks, leaving their softer interior exposed to the weather, but also bricks have been dislocated and are being pushed off of the chimney.
Spalling can occur even in warm climates when a masonry product is soft, porous, improperly made, or improperly constructed. But spalling damage is often most severe in northern climates where a freeze-thaw cycle can cause frost to actually break and push off masonry fragments.
Our photo at left shows typical brick chimney spalling - notice that ultimately entire bricks can be lost leaving a hole in the chimney and accelerating water and frost damage.
We sometimes find bricks have been lost entirely from a chimney and we have to ask if the bricks fell into the flue (blocking it and making it unsafe). Our photo at above right shows a spalling concrete block chimney.
A spalled chimney may also have a damaged and unsafe flue.
A detailed inspection of the flue interior is in order. But usually spalling and frost damage occur only on the exterior portions of a chimney exposed to weather, not on the interior portions that run inside of a building.
Watch out: water and frost damage to masonry chimneys can lead to costly damage, fire and flue gas hazards, and even chimney collapse hazards. See Chimney Crack & Collapse
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Spalling at Masonry Chimneys
Questions & answers or comments about the causes and hazards of spalling, flaking, chipping (or cracking) of masonry flues.
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