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CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
BACKDRAFTING HEATING EQUIPMENT
CARBON MONOXIDE - CO
CHIMNEY CAP & CROWN
CHIMNEY CLEANING PROCEDURES
CHIMNEY COMPONENT DEFINITIONS
CHIMNEY CRACK DETECTION & DIAGNOSIS
CHIMNEY DRAFT & PERFORMANCE
CHIMNEY FIRE ACTION / PREVENTION
CHIMNEY HEIGHT & CLEARANCE CODE
CHIMNEY INSPECTION, FLUE INTERIOR
CHIMNEY LEANING, SEPARATION, MOVEMENT
CHIMNEY REPAIR METHODS
CHIMNEY STAINS & LEAKS
CHIMNEY TYPES & MATERIALS
DIRECT VENTS / SIDE WALL VENTS
DRAFT REGULATORS, DAMPERS, BOOSTERS
FIRE CLEARANCES INDOORS
FIREPLACES & HEARTHS
FLUE VENT CONNECTORS
MASONRY CHIMNEY GUIDE
METAL CHIMNEYS & FLUES
SAFETY RECALLS CHIMNEYS VENTS HEATERS
SOOT AT CHIMNEY TOP
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING EXTERIORS
WOOD, COAL STOVES & FIREPLACES
Woodstove fire clearance distance specifications:
This article describes fire safety distances required between wood stoves and coal stoves and the nearest combustible surface. We discuss child safety zones around wood and pellet stoves, the fire clearances for listed and un-listed wood or pellet stoves, and the construction and installation of a heat shield to reduce the required fire clearance distances around wood heating appliances.
The article includes standards for wood or pellet stove installations for various countries and it concludes with photos and descriptions of unsafe wood stove installations.
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Our photo (above) shows an unsafe wood fireplace installation that lacks adequate clearance from combustibles. Notice also that the connection between the fireplace top and the flue is upside-down and that considerable leakage has occurred out of the flue onto the fireplace top.
Some basic rule of thumb fire clearances for woodstoves are shown in the sketch at left. (Click to enlarge the image).
Watch out: Check with your local fire marshall about local building code requirements for fire-clearance distances before installing and using a wood stove, coal stove, or other auxiliary heat source. Making a mistake can lead to a dangerous building fire.
Use whatever means necessary to create a 36-inch safety zone around any heating equipment that can get hot enough to burn a child. Keep small children out of this space.
In the U.S. certification is monitored by the U.S. EPA who provide a List of EPA Certified Wood Heaters given below. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the U.S. Wood Heat Safety Organization also provide consistent recommendations for wood stoves that are not carry a certification label. Certifying agencies and standards for other countries are given below.
Fire safety clearance distances are measured from the closest point of the outer surface of the heating appliance to the closest point of nearby wall, floor or ceiling or to other combustible materials that might be nearby. The wall finish surface, such as drywall is not considered in evaluating the heat resistance or fire safety of the heating appliance.
Watch out: Check with your local fire marshall about local building code requirements for fire-clearance distances before installing and using a wood stove, coal stove, or other auxiliary heat source. Also check the specific fire clearance distance recommendations provided by the manufacturer of your wood burning appliance. Making a mistake can lead to a dangerous building fire. In some jurisdictions for certified woodstoves clearance distances permitted may be as follows:
Clearance distances such as those cited above can in some circumstances be reduced by using proper heat shields of proper material and with proper air spacing and mounting hardware: subject to approval by your local building code official or fire marshall and described below.
In most jurisdictions a building permit and fire safety inspections are required before a wood stove or coal stove can be installed. But we often find that a permit was not obtained and no inspections performed.
Warning: even when a wood or coal stove has been properly installed there are other fire and burn hazards, such as placement of kindling, papers, or furnishings too close to the appliance, chimney fires, and combustion air or (with coal stoves) carbon monoxide hazards.
The following wall and ceiling clearances from woodstoves and similar heating appliances is described by Canada's CSA:
There are two approaches to heat shield protection to reduce wood heater fire clearance distances
Wall-mounted Heat Shield Protection: A proper non-combustible fire-protective barrier for a wall-mounted includes a 1" air space between the barrier and the combustible wall.
Mounting hardware for heat shields: The non-combustible wall protection must use insulating and non-combustible mounting hardware that can not conduct heat from the woodstove or its flue to the combustible wall through the barrier.
Air circulation behind heat shields: If air cannot circulate freely behind the noncombustible wall protection the installation is unsafe and not acceptable. Most standards specify one-inch or in some cases 7/8" of air space behind the heat shield.
According to Wood Heat Safety Woodheat.org Original source: http://www.woodheat.org/clearances.html
Watch out: when purchasing a woodstove or pellet stove be sure that the unit carries a permanently affixed label certifying that it has been tested for safety by an independent testing laboratory.
The US EPA sketch at above left illustrates where you should find the permanent wood stove certification tag and what it looks like. This "EPA Sticker" is not a stick-on label despite the use of that term by some agencies. It is typically a non-combustible metallic label that gives the date of manufacture of the wood or pellet stove and includes this text: "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Certified to Comply with July, 1988 particulate emissions standards."
Note that nothing in this certification comments directly on the safety of the heating appliance nor its fire safety clearance distances. Those data will generally appear in the wood stove's or pellet stove's installation instructions as well as in your local building codes.
A temporary label giving data about the wood heater's efficiency, smoke output in grams per hour, and heat output in BTU range per hour is also affixed to the stove when purchased. An example temporary data tag for a non-catalytic wood stove is shown at above-right These data tags are distinct from the wood stove certification tag and give different information.
HERE is an example of the EPA temporary label attached to a catalytic-type wood stove.
Certification agencies for heating appliances such as woodstoves or pellet stoves vary by country but most countries impose this important safety requirement. Below we give sources for wood stove and pellet stove installation and safety standards for various countries.
Above we illustrate two egregious examples of wood stove installations. The Jotl type woodstove (above left) is installed half in a weird (and improperly constructed) fireplace and half standing on carpeting.
The odd shape of the fireplace was creative but we suspect that it may not have performed well - another reason for adding the woodstove. This is an unsafe installation.
Placing a woodstove in a living room next to the couch (above right) is asking for a fire.
The process and temperatures under which wood deteriorates and becomes more readily combustible is also discussed
Continue reading at FIRE CLEARANCES INDOORS or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
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