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This article describes exterior lighting for residential & light commercial properties.
We begin with a discussion of how to install recessed lights in an exterior soffit or roof overhang. We provide lighting installation suggestions about the type of light fixture to use, light fixture support, clearances, fire safety, moisture resistance, switch location, and electrical code citations for exterior lighting on buildings.
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Exterior Light Choices, Installation, Troubleshooting
Also see our discussion of lighting requirements over stairs, at Lighting over Stairs and see LIGHTING, INTERIOR GUIDE for details about lighting fixtures, bulbs, and indoor requirements.
How to Install Recessed Lights in Roof Soffit Overhangs Outdoors
I've used your website many times to find trusted advice on building and remodeling practices. I have a question that I can't seem to find an answer on at inspectapedia.
I wonder if you might be able to answer. I want to know if it is acceptable to put recessed can lighting in exterior vinyl soffits.
I know it is fine in aluminum soffits, but I am concerned about the effects of the heat on the Vinyl soffits. In particular, can regular IC or non-IC 4" or 5" can lights be installed in the eves in Vinyl soffits? Thanks for your time and keep up the excellent work. - A. F.
Photo (above left) of recessed lighting installed in a roof soffit overhang, courtesy of Paul Galow.
Reply: how to install recessed lights in a vinyl soffit or roof overhang
Here are the installation considerations that you should keep in mind when buying & installing outdoor light fixtures for a roof overhang or soffit. These points include addressing your worry about the effects of heat on vinyl roof soffits as well as other installation advice we found while researching the question.
Choice of recessed light fixtures for an outdoor roof soffit
While there are of course many surface-mount light fixtures that also work fine outdoors including at the roof eaves, you (and many people) want to install recessed fixtures, also referred to as "pot lights" or in some installations, downlights.
- Choose an IC recessed lighting fixture. IC fixtures are rated for installation in insulated ceilings. You won't be insulating your soffit outdoors, at least not normally, but using an IC fixture there means that issues about fire clearances are just about eliminated.
Technical notes about types of recessed light fixture housings
- IC-rated refers to lighting fixture housings rated for installation in contact with insulation, typically rated for handling up to 100 watts.
- Spacing - Clearance for Non-IC-rated light fixtures: these housings may not be installed in contact with building insulation and typically require a 3-inch clearance between the fixture surfaces and the nearest insulation. In some building electrical code jurisdictions, Non-IC light fixtures are not allowed if insulation is present at all.
Non-IC-rated fixtures may be able to handle higher light wattages, but are currently more likely to be replaced with "IC Air-Tight light fixture housings.
- Spacing - Clearances for IC-rated air-tight-rated lighting fixtures: these housings are IC-rated (as above) and are air-tight rated. These fixtures are specified by some energy-savings codes.
You may not need air-tight rated fixtures in an outdoor building soffit, but see our notes below about ice dam effects of warm or hot light fixtures in an outdoor roof overhang or soffit. Because an air-tight light fixture housing will run hotter, the wattage in these fixtures and the trim selections may be limited - do not violate the manufacturer's instructions. Note that by choosing CF or LED lighting you should be able to increase the light output while keeping the fixture temperature down.
Details are at RECESSED LIGHT CLEARANCES
- Thermal overload (overheating) protection: currently all UL-listed recessed lighting fixtures sold for installation in North America include a thermal sensor device that will turn the fixture off if its temperature exceeds its design temperature.
Thermal protection devices use either a thermal protection device that turns off the fixture if its temperature exceeds a specified limit (used in all IC and IC/Non-IC rated fixtures) or an insulation sensor that detects the presence of insulation fibers and will turn off the fixture if it detects insulation.
Insulation sensors are used in Non-IC lighting fixtures. Arcadian Lighting warns that if you install a Non-IC fixture in a building where insulation is nearby and the sensor detects insulation, the fixture may continue to shut down even if you remove the insulation (as its sensor is now contaminated). 
- Choose a recessed light fixture that is also UL listed for use in damp locations. In most jurisdictions your electrical code compliance inspector will insist on an IC, damp-location-rated fixture. (Check the label in our photo at left).
Watch out: "dry & damp location" recessed light housings may be installed in dry or damp locations only. The trims for most of these fixtures are not listed for wet locations. Special fixtures and trim are however, available for wet locations. including Dekor's waterproof 12-V LED lighting fixtures.
Some if not many builders assert that the space under a roof overhang is "dry" but in fact the area is exposed to both dampness, and in event of high wind during rains, wind-blown rain that can actually cycle upwards against the soffit in some locations. (There are waterproof recessed light fixtures intended for use outdoors in lawns, decks, and walkways. You shouldn't need these and it would most likely be overkill.)
- You may need to use a 4-inch IC fixture rather than a 6-inch unit. Standing under the eaves and looking up at a soffit you may think there is plenty of space for the light fixture but if your roof is constructed with a fairly low slope, say 4 in 12, and depending on how far past the building walls your soffit extends, you may find it difficult to squeeze a 6-inch "can" or pot light into the space and still center it.
- Recessed lighting fixtures are sold in housing diameter opening sizes of 3", 4", 5" and 6". Two fixtures of different diameters will permit the same lighting output provided that they are rated to accept the same bulb and wattage.
- 4-inch recessed light fixtures are the most common size used for 12-Volt systems.
- 6-inch recessed light fixtures are the most common size used for 120-volt recessed light systems
- 3-inch and 5-inch recessed light fixture sizes are design alternatives to the 6-inch system.
- If space is tight, you can opt for a standard 4-inch fixture instead of a 6-inch unit. If you have not already done so, remove one of the vinyl panels from your soffit to inspect the interior area for space, clearances, and also to see how the soffit was constructed. More on that next.
- Angled surface or adjustable-angle recessed light fixtures may be desirable if you are installing recessed lighting into a sloped soffit or ceiling rather than into horizontal soffits or ceilings.
Angled or adjustable-angle fixtures allow you to set the angle of the bulb in the housing to point at an angle different from the position of the fixture itself. So in a sloped roof overhang whose soffits are affixed directly to the rafter under-sides, an adjustable-angle recessed light fixture allows you to still aim the fixture straight down if desired. An "eyeball" or "gimbal" recessed light fixture are examples of angle-adjustable recessed light fixture units.
Watch out: if your roof slope is very shallow or if the soffit follows the underside of roof rafters, the space for a recesed light fixture may be limited, even using IC-rated devices (and depending on rafter size).
For example in the roof soffit of a 1920's era low-slope roofed bungalow you may need to install a shallow housing IC-rated light fixture just to fit the unit into the space afforded by nominal 2x6 rafters (giving about 5 1/2" of vertical space). If you opt for an eyeball type shallow recessed light fixture the "eyeball" project out below the soffit face, and even so you may not be able to point the light straight down.
- Before buying your light fixtures to use in the soffits, I'd give some thought to the bulb type alternatives that we describe below. Also see details at Guide to Recessed Light Housings.
Installing the Recessed Lights Under the Soffit
- If you haven't already done so, remove the soffit covering panels, intact. Usually we can do this by pulling out the L-channel or J-channel at the bottom of the fascia board, leaving the J or F channel on the building walls in place.
Support for recessed lights in an outdoor roof overhang
- Do not try to support a recessed light fixture by simply cutting a hole in the soffit covering and securing the light to it. You might get away with that approach if your building is an older one that was originally constructed with solid plywood
soffit coverings, but more likely you'll find that the vinyl (or aluminum) soffit covering is supported only by -channel. The light fixture needs to be secured to the building structure.
- If the roof eaves are enclosed with a horizontal soffit cover, you may need to install a short, horizontal support that is secured to the building wall at one end and to the inner face of the fascia or the rafter tail-end at the outer end. Your soffit light fixture will be in turn secured to this member. A 2x4 will most likely be adequate.
- If the roof eaves are enclosed with a soffit that is secured to the underside of the rafters, you will have still less installation space (and a 4-inch box will surely be needed), but the installation is otherwise simple since you can secure the fixture to the side of a rafter.
- On the installation sheet for your pot lights you'll see and follow any clearance and support details given by the fixture manufacturer.
- Most recessed light fixtures allow for a range of adjusting of the can position, but I'd pay some attention to locating the face edge of the can just above where you expect the upper surface of the soffit covering to reach when you are reinstalling that material.
Wiring the recessed soffit lights
- No surprise, all of your electrical wiring must comply with local electrical codes, for which the National Electrical code is usually the starting model. Check with your building department about the required permits and inspections. In many jurisdictions, electrical wiring must be done by a licensed electrician.
Even if your town permits do-it-yourself wiring, the results must meet the requirements of the electrical code. I'd hire a licensed professional.
- GFCI's (ground fault circuit interrupter) protection is not required by the NEC for outdoor overhead lights. (We found a few electricians who recommended GFCI protection for the circuit, fearing that someone would stand on an aluminum ladder set on wet ground while messing with the fixture.)
- Choose your power source. Often for getting power to lights in a roof soffit, you can find an available circuit in the building attic, or in a nearby garage.
- Choose the switch location. Remember when planning wiring routing that you will want to locate a switch for these lights at a convenient spot indoors, preferably by an exit door.
- When planning your wiring and wire routing, now is a good time to make any final decisions on other electrical control options for your roof downlights, such as
- Light timers
- Light dimmers
- Motion sensors. We installed motion-sensing surface mount lights under an outdoor soffit that covered the approach to a building door - they have been much appreciated since.
Choosing Bulb Types for Outdoor Recessed Soffit Lights
Reinstall the Soffit Covering of Vinyl or Aluminum; Choose & Install Recessed Soffit Light Trim
- Cutting the hole for recessed lighting fixtures: use the dimensions or template provided by the fixture manufacturer.
Watch out: the size of the fixture opening for recessed lighting may vary significantly depending on whether the installation during new construction (the fixture housing is installed before the ceiling or soffit cover is installed) or a retrofit installation.
Retrofit openings tend to be larger.
For example, a typical retrofit installation hole template may specify a diameter of 162mm or 6.375", but your fixture may be different.
- Reinstall the soffit covering: If you managed to remove your soffit covering intact, then its' ready for reinstallation. You will want to measure twice and cut once to get your round openings properly centered below each light fixture. Cut the opening to clear the fixture by 1/4 to 1/2".
Do not allow the soffit covering material to contact the can surface, especially if you are using vinyl soffit covers.
- Choose & install light fixture trim: we recommend choosing solid trim bezels for use around your soffit lights. We're not concerned about airflow as we would be with indoor recessed ceiling lights, but we like to discourage insects and small birds from making a home in the soffit or in the fixtures themselves.
For details about trim types used with recessed lighting also
see Recessed Lighting Fixture Trims
Surface-Mount Outdoor Light Fixture Installations
At below left our photo illustrates a surface-mounted outdoor light fixture installed beneath a building overhang. This fixture, one of a pair along a walkway beneath the overhang, lights the passage to the building's front door.
By choosing a fixture that includes a motion sensor and day-night controls, the ownes can leave this fixture switched "on" 24-hours a day. Settings on the light control for many outdoor lights permit the occupant to choose among
- Off during day, on at night
- Off during day, on at night only when motion is detected
- Off during day, on at night at dim level, on at bright level when motion is detected
- On during day at low-level, on at night at bright level when motion is detected
At the indoor light switch for such fixtures, we like to install a reminder that the switch should normally be left in the "on" position. To prevent the switch from being flipped to the "off" position accidentally, we install the clear plastic switch block shown in our second photo, above right. It is still possible to turn the switch off, leaving the plastic switch-block in place but prying it away from the switch with your thumbnail, or better, by loosening its mounting screw.
Outdoor Light Fixture Installations We Hate
Here are a few examples of outdoor "lighting" practices to avoid. Jury-rigged hanging exposed wiring (below left) and use of indoor "zip cord" electrical wiring to add a (non-weather-tight) outdoor light at the house fascia (below right).
Below left, well at least there is some conduit. That flood bulb is actually touching the wood fascia board interior surface. At below right we lack weather protection and the bulb base is broken.
We inspected a home that caught fire after the owner installed an over-watted incandescent bulb in a plastic coach light fixture like the one at left. Click the news story to read about a similar fire that began in the outside light.
Below left we see an indoor light fixture screwed to a vinyl sided wall, and added to that unsafe installation is the use of an extension cord adapter on the fixture. Outside electrical receptacles for extension cords require grounded and GFCI receptacles.
At below right we illustrate a closer look at a wall-mounted floodlight that includes cracked unsafe electrical wires, an opening into the box missing a weather cover, and exposed electrical wires almost touching the metal light fixture. At least he taped them.
Similar to the plastic light fixture fire we cited above, even in a well built metal light fixture such as the coachlight at left, if the bulb and wiring become loose and damaged it is possible to short-circuit the wobbly bulb simply by touching it. Notice in the left photo below that the bulb is askew. We could push it to center - it was hanging by a wire. This exterior light fixture needs repair or replacement.
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
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(Nov 20, 2012) Kyle said:
Can you move existing exterior soffit pot lights? They were installed in the wrong place.
Sure the lights can be moved. It will probably entail replacing some of the soffit covering material and running some new wire to avoid the violation of leaving any buried junction boxes in the old locations. It's not likely to be a technically-difficult job.
x(Dec 1, 2012) dale plisco said:
if a series of outside can lights are corroded from water damage from above, after problem is fix, does the wiring also need to be replaced in addition to getting new waterproof or damp & dry cans?
Dale, it makes sense to me to have an electrician inspect wiring and all connections for corrosion or water damage, repairing as appropriate.
(Feb 3, 2014) Monte said:
Do you need to have a fire proof or limited combustible ring between the box and the vinyl soffit?
Monte, if you are using a lighting fixture rated for outdoor use and if we are talking about the light fixture itself - the clearance requirements vary and are read on the fixture label.
If you are asking about an electrical junction box, as those are normally affixed to wood framing (itself combustible) I'm not sure that there would be a different requirement for proximity to vinyl.
Question: use extension cord for outdoor floodlight?
(Mar 9, 2014) Rob Blakeslee said:
I want to install a floodlight on the exterior of my home to illuminate the American flag I display.
My homeowners association is forbidding me from drilling though the wall to properly install the fixture. They want me to just run an extension cord down the wall and under the garage door to an outlet inside the garage. I want to do this to code.
I have unsheathed 14 gauge conductor and will run it through conduit to a dedicated circuit in the electrical panel. Can you help me locate the electrical code which applies to this installation? I believe the homeowners association is telling me to improperly install this fixture. Thanks for your assistance.
Extension cord wiring is not going to meet electrical code if permanently installed. In a temporary user, connected to a GFCI receptacle that would be ok. But do not run extension cord wiring inside conduit. It is not rated for that application, may overrHeat, or be unsafe for other reasons. And won't comply with code so I'm doubtful that you'll find a code citation.
Question: difference between temporary extension cords & permanent electrical wiring?
What's the difference between permanent installation of the extension cord, verses just using one? Is it the cord, having it stapled or otherwise mounted? I find your comments super informative, so I thank you for your advice. Sophia Liam | emfpower.com/commercial
"permanent" installation of an extension cord includes affixing the cord to a building surface or routing it through walls or ceilings or in similar outdoor insntallations. In those applications conventional electrical wiring (armored cable or non-metallic cable) of proper conductor size should have been used.
The concern in part is that the insulation properties, heat resistant properties, and weather or other exposure resistant properties of extension cord wire are not suitable for permanent installation and in such use risk breaking down, leakage, damage, electrical shock, or fire. A related example of bad use of extension cord wiring other than running it through a wall is the routing of extension cords under carpets.
Extension cord wiring is not designed nor rated to withstand foot traffic, added heat loads that come from being enclosed or hidden in a wall cavity or under a carpet, etc.
Question: how to fix a motion sensor light that won't turn off
10/27/2014 Dennis E. Reed said:
I installed model# P5661-71 motion light on my porch,it's night outside and the light stays on all the time.
I live 25' from a main road and with the porch height the light is 7'high from the ground.I have tried the
sensitivity switch on low and high setting and it doesn't help. Is there any hope that I will be able to
have the light work the way it should ? e-mail address- email@example.com
When I find a motion sensor light that won't turnoff
1. I turn off the circuit for 5-10 minutes, then turn it back on to be sure the controls have been re-set
2. Check the settings on the sensor to be sure the sensor was not left in "test" or "ON" mode
3. Check that the sensor is not pointed at something that keeps the light on - constant motion, people, etc. or that its sensitivity is not too high (which you've checked already)
4. Check that the light and sensor were properly wired according to its installation instructions
If all of these steps check out as being correct, I try replacing the sensor.
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Technical Reviewers & References
Publisher's Google+ Page by Daniel Friedman
Click to Show or Hide Citations & References
-  Codes & Standards pertaining to fire-rating enclosures:
- ASTM E119-05a
- UL 263 (also see Canadian CUL specifications)
- UBC 7-1
- NFPA 251
- ANSI A2.1
-  Steven Bliss served as editorial director and co-publisher of The Journal of Light Construction for 16 years and previously as building technology editor for Progressive Builder and Solar Age magazines. He worked in the building trades as a carpenter and design/build contractor for more than ten years and holds a masters degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Excerpts from his recent book, Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, Wiley (November 18, 2005) ISBN-10: 0471648361, ISBN-13: 978-0471648369, appear throughout this website, with permission and courtesy of Wiley & Sons. Best Practices Guide is available from the publisher, J. Wiley & Sons, and also at Amazon.com.
-  Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 firstname.lastname@example.org. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission to use illustrations from their publication, The Illustrated Home which illustrates construction details and building components. Carson Dunlop provides home inspection education including the ASHI-adopted a Home Inspection Home Study Course, and publications such as the Home Reference Book, the Home Reference eBook, and report writing materials including the Horizon report writer, and home inspection services. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors.
-  Paul Galow - technical consultant on networking, LAN design, applications support. Galow Consulting Services, 914-204-1749, email: email@example.com
-  New Jersey State Energy Code, N.J.A.C. 5:23-3.18, Recessed Lighting Fixtures (RLFs), Uniform Construction Code Communicator, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 2004, p. 8, Division of Codes and Standards, POB 802, Trenton NJ 08625-0802. Web site for free downloads of the energy
compliance tools REScheck, New Jersey edition and
COMcheck-EZ is www.energycodes.gov.
N.J.A.C. 5:23-3.18 adopts by reference the 1995
edition of the Council of American Building Officials’ Model
Energy Code (CABO MEC/1995) as New Jersey’s Energy
Subcode of the Uniform Construction Code. Sections 502.3.4 and 602.3.3 of CABO MEC/1995, both entitled
“Recessed Lighting Fixtures,” contain requirements for RLFs
in relation to the Energy Subcode. The following are the
three options for the installation of RLFs when installed in
the building envelope. Only one must be followed to meet
the requirements of the Energy Subcode:
1. Type IC rated, manufactured with no
penetrations between the inside of the recessed
fixture and ceiling cavity, and sealed or gasketed to
prevent air leakage into the unconditioned space; or
2. Type IC rated or non-IC rated, installed inside a
sealed box constructed from a minimum ½-inch-thick
gypsum wall board or constructed from preformed
polymeric vapor barrier, or other air-tight assembly
manufactured for this purpose, while maintaining
required clearances of not less than ½ inch from
combustible material and not less than three inches
from insulation material; or
3. Type IC rated, in accordance with ASTM E 283-
91 (Standard Method of Test for Rate of Air Leakage
Through Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, and
Doors), with no more than 2.0 cfm air movement from
the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. The
lighting fixture shall be tested at 75 Pa or 1.57 lbs/ft2
pressure difference and shall be labeled.
Sections 502.3.4 and 602.3.3 of CABO MEC/1995
are the responsibility of the building subcode official, who
inspects RLFs to ensure that they are either insulation cover
rated (IC rated), or installed in a sealed box that has the
insulation at least three inches from the light fixture. It is
the building subcode official’s responsibility to ensure
compliance, both in the inspection plan review and inspection
plan review stages, because RLFs pose a potential fire
hazard if installed incorrectly with insulation. These fixtures
also act as chimneys, transferring heat loss and moisture
through the building envelope into attic spaces if not installed
properly. The heat loss resulting from improperly insulated
RLFs can be significant.
NOTE: Electrical subcode officials are responsible
for the wiring methods of RLFs.
-  "Out of Sight, Out of Mind - the dangers and requirements of recessed light fixtures", Kellie K. Speed, Electrical Contractor, Feb. 2009, Quoting:
When installing recessed fixtures, carefully consider the location of the units. The presence of combustible materials surrounding
the luminaire is very important, and recessed lights can act as chimneys for heat loss and moisture transfer into attic spaces. Many
residential fires have resulted from improperly installed or modified recessed light fixtures, but they can be easily avoided.
In older homes that may have existing recessed lighting fixtures, homeowners sometimes cover these fixtures with insulation. As a
result, the insulation traps the heat created by the bulb and either melts the insulation on the electrical wiring or ignites combustible
materials, which is, of course, a fire hazard.
It is vital to ensure the area surrounding the recessed fixture is insulated properly. In addition to fire, the interior of a property could be compromised if air leakage occurs,
resulting in moisture, condensation and mold. Sealing the building properly reduces air movement in and out of the building. Uncontrolled air movement will negatively
impact the heating and cooling systems, resulting in higher initial and ongoing maintenance costs.
There certainly is a lot to consider when installing recessed lighting. For help, consult the National Electrical Code (NEC). Article 410 Parts M and N offer special
provisions for recessed luminaires installed in walls or ceilings. Most of these Code requirements are designed to protect combustible building materials from
temperatures greater than 90°C (194°F).
-  National Electrical Code, (NEC). Article 410 Parts M and N:
provisions for recessed luminaires installed in walls or ceilings.
-  "E-Series LED Recessed Light, Installation instructions for E6-E26-30-WH, retrofit installation or new construction installation, American Lighting, www.americanlighting.com
-  "Information Bulletin - Recessed Light Fittings", ACE Insurance Limited, CU1-3, Shed 24, Princes Wharf, Auckland 1010, website: http://www.aceinsurance.co.nz/,
Ace reported a "near miss" inner city apartment complex fire traced to recessed light fittings. Quoting:
An investigation into the cause of a fault on an apartment complex’s fire alarm system revealed the cause
as a slow smouldering fire involving the heat detector wiring. Further investigation indicated the probable
cause of the fire to be due to a nearby recessed incandescent light fitting which had overheated. The
insulation on the electric wiring at the point of connection to the light fitting had been burnt away and the
burning had continued for several metres along the electrical wiring to the switch and another
interconnected light fitting within the same room. Thermal insulation material (fibreglass batts) was
present in the roof space around the recessed light fittings.
The recessed light fittings had been installed in the room for more than 15 years without any previous
issues. Repairs to the roof had been carried out some 5 years previously which required contractors to
access the roof space directly above the room.
Australian/New Zealand Wiring Rules (AS/NZS 3000:2007 provides minimum clearance for recessed light fittings but emphasizes that The importance of following relevant codes and standards and the recessed light manufacturer's installation requirements cannot be over-emphasized.
|Clearance - luminaire to building element above
|Side clearance - luminaire to structural member
|Clearance -luminaire to thermal insulation
|Clearance - luminaire to supply transformer
-  E.Z. Barrier, fire-rated: Fire-rated Recessed Light Enclosure, E.Z. Barrier, 901 N 3rd St, Ste 130
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Ph. 612.436.0606 Fax 612.436.0608
firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: www.ezbarrier.com Product literature describes one-hour rated enclosure for recessed lights that save time over a site built fire-rated recessed light enclosure complies with the fire resistance codes listed in citation  above.
-  "Liteline Recessed Lighting, Luminaire Encastre, 6-in. Remodel IC/non-IC housing, air tight, Installation Instructions", Liteline Corporation, email@example.com, web: lifeline.com, Tel: 866-730-7704
-  "Wiring Methods Utilizing Suspended Ceilings (Revised", State of Oregon, Building Codes Division, code interpretation, 10/1/2002, Gary A. Wilson, Chief Electrical Inspector & Doug Alexander, Structural Code Specialist. This interpretation specifies that in light duty systems certain light fixtures (such as recessed fluorescent lighting), the ceiling system shall not be used for the support of the lighting fixtures. Intermediate-duty ceilings may be used for supporting recessed lighting fixtures provided certain support detail specifications are followed. Heavy duty ceiling systems require that the recessed light fixture be secured to specifications included in the interpretation. Web search 4/29/12, original source: http://www.etnews.org/docs/wiring_methods_suspended_ceilings.pdf
-  "Recessed Light (Non-Insulating), Installation Instructions, CANARM Lighting & Fans, Tel: 800-265-1833 (English) or 800-567-2513 (French) or 800-267-4427 (USA) describe a recessed light fixture retrofit through a drywall ceiling.
-  "Downlights, Recessed Downlight Housings - Installation", Lucifer Lighting Company, 414 Live Oak St., San Antonnio TX 78202, Tel: 210-227-7329, www.luciferlighting.com
-  "Outdoor Recessed Light Kit Installation Instructions, apply to downlights / stair lights", Dekor, 2655 Santa Fe Unit 4H, Denver CO 80223, 2011, Customer Support: 800-258-0344, Website: www.DE-Kor.com. This document describes installation for a 12V DC constant current 3A transformer with a waterproof design IP66-rated, UL and CUL approved, and LED lighting fixtures that are waterproof and can be submerged in water. cf: OUTDOORRecessedLight Install1.pdf
-  "Recessed Lighting Tips", Arcadian Lighting, website: www.arcadianlighting.com Tel: 888-228-8856. [No mailing address provided]
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
- The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Or choose the The Home Reference eBook for PCs, Macs, Kindle, iPad, iPhone, or Android Smart Phones. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAEHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.