Photograph of an electric meter too close to a bed and sleeping area - high EMF will be measured if quite close to electrical meters Research on the Effects of Exposure to Radio Frequency & Electromagnetic Fields
     

  • EMF REFERENCES - CONTENTS: Reference articles on electromagnetic fields, hazards, cancer risk, measurement and evaluation of field strengths
  • POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about sources of authoritative information about EMF and RF electromagnetic field hazards, measurement procedures, reporting, & mitigation
  • REFERENCES

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Refernces for EMF and RF exposure, hazards, & exposure measurements: this article lists and provides links to useful articles explaining electromagnetic field (EMF) or electro-magnetic radiation EMR hazards and hazard measurement.

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Key References for Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer Risk/Carcinogenicity

Electrical power transformer on a utility pole in the U.S.  (C) Daniel Friedman

  • Electric Power Lines, Electromagnetic Fields, Cancer Risk, & "Enviro-Scare" - The Normal Curve Cycle of Public Fear About Environmental Issues - online document by DF
  • EMF RF FIELD & FREQUENCY DEFINITIONS for a simple explanation of different types of radio frequency (RF) and electromagnetic frequency (EMF) types and where they are found.
  • A Procedure for Measuring EMF electromagnetic fields online document by DF
  • "Questions and Answers about Biological Effects and Potential Hazards of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields" [PDF], Federal Communications Commission, Office of Engineering and Technology, US FCC, OET Bulleting 56, 4th Edition, August 1999

    " Many consumer and industrial products and applications make use of some form of electromagnetic energy. One type of electromagnetic energy that is of increasing importance worldwide is radiofrequency (or "RF") energy, including radio waves and microwaves, which is used for providing telecommunications, broadcast and other services.

    In the United States the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) authorizes or licenses most RF telecommunications services, facilities, and devices used by the public, industry and state and local governmental organizations.

    Because of its regulatory responsibilities in this area the FCC often receives inquiries concerning whether there are potential safety hazards due to human exposure to RF energy emitted by FCC-regulated transmitters.

    Heightened awareness of the expanding use of RF technology has led some people to speculate that "electromagnetic pollution" is causing significant risks to human health from environmental RF electromagnetic fields.

    This document is designed to provide factual information and to answer some of the most commonly asked questions related to this topic.
    " - original source: U.S. Federal Communications Commission Office of Engineering and Technology, http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Engineering_Technology/Documents/bulletins/oet56/oet56e4.pdf

  • "Magnetic Field Exposure and Cancer: Questions and Answers [ copy on file as /emf/EMF_Fact_Sheet_NCI_NIH.pdf ] - ," National Cancer Institute, U.S. National Institutes of Health, web search September 2010, original source: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/magnetic-fields
    makes these five key points about EMF
    • Electric and magnetic fields (EMF) are areas of energy that surround any electrical device. EMFs are produced by power lines, electrical wiring, and appliances (see Question 1).
    • Electric fields are easily shielded or weakened by walls and other objects, whereas magnetic fields are not. Since magnetic fields are more likely to penetrate the body, they are the component of EMFs that are usually studied in relation to cancer (see Question 1).
    • Overall, there is limited evidence that magnetic fields cause childhood leukemia, and there is inadequate evidence that these magnetic fields cause other cancers in children (see Question 2).
    • Studies of magnetic field exposure from power lines and electric blankets in adults show little evidence of an association with leukemia, brain tumors, or breast cancer (see Question 3).
    • Past studies of occupational magnetic field exposure in adults showed very small increases in leukemia and brain tumors. However, more recent, well-conducted studies have shown inconsistent associations with leukemia, brain tumors, and breast cancer (see Question 4).
  • EMF RF FIELD & FREQUENCY DEFINITIONS RF and EMF measurement tools need to be properly chosen to measure the particular type and frequency of RF or EMF signal that is of interest. See EMF RF FIELD & FREQUENCY DEFINITIONS for a simple explanation of different types of radio frequency (RF) and electromagnetic frequency (EMF) types and where they are found.
  • Definitions of Gauss vs Milligauss for details about gauss and milligauss and definitions of these terms.
  • Consumer Product Safety Commission, 800-638-CPSC.
  • US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, TSCA Assistance Office (TS-799), 800-424-9065 or 202-554-1404.
  • "Evaluation of Potential Carcinogenicity of Electromagnetic Fields," EPA Report #EPA/600/6-90/005B October 1990. EPA: 513/569-7562.
  • "Biological Effects of Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields" background paper, prepared as part of OTA's assessment of "Electric Power Wheeling and Dealing: Technological Considerations for Increasing Competition," prepared for OTA by Indira Nair, M. Granger Morgan, H. Keith Florig, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213
  • "Biological Effects of Power Line Fields," New York State Powerline Project. Scientific Advisory Board Final Report, July 1, 1987.
  • "Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Fields," Environmental Health Criteria 35. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1984.
  • "Electric and Magnetic Fields at Extremely Low Frequencies: Interactions with Biological Systems. In: Non ionizing Radiation Protection, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 1987.
  • "Electric and Magnetic Fields from 60 Hertz Electric Power: What do we know about possible health risks?," Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 1989.
  • "Electromagnetic Fields Are Being Scrutinized for Linkage to Cancer," Sandra Blakeslee, New York Times, Medical Science section, April 2, 1991

 

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