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This document explains the latent electric shock and fire hazards associated with Federal Pacific Electric Stab-Lok® electric panels and circuit breakers. Federal Pacific Electric "Stab-Lok® " service panels and breakers are dangerous and can fail, leading to electrical fires. The problem is that some 240-Volt FPE circuit breakers and possibly also some 120-Volt units simply may not work.
Replacement FPE Stab-Lok® circuit breakers are unlikely to reduce the failure risk of this equipment. We recommend that residential FPE Stab-Lok® electrical panels be replaced entirely or the entire panel bus assembly be replaced, regardless of FPE model number or FPE year of manufacture. We do not sell circuit breakers nor any other products.
Green links show where you are. © Copyright 2014 InspectApedia.com, All Rights Reserved.FPE FIRES: Failure Reports and The Federal Pacific Stab-Lok® Electric Panel Hazard Website.
It has been suggested that there are as many as 28 million of these FPE Stab-Lok® breakers in use in the U.S. which means that in some conditions as many as one million of them may fail to provide proper fire protection. This includes "new old stock" and appears to include "substitute" FPE Stab-Lok® circuit breakers, none of which have shown an improvement in reliability in independent testing. So the right "repair" is to replace the FPE Stab-Lok® electric panel.
But where are they? Most homeowners whose houses are served by these panels are unaware of the hazards. So too are some inspectors and contractors.
Because most homeowners do not order periodic electrical safety inspections, the presence of these panels is often undiscovered until an inspection made in the course of renovating or selling a property. Our field experience indicates that even when problems occur with this equipment, often it is simply removed or replaced with little publicity. Neither manufacturers nor some electricians are inclined to frighten consumers.
See How to Identify FPE Federal Pacific Stab-Lok® Electric Panels - is yours one of these? ALSO: A History of the FPE Stab-Lok® Issue. But come back and finish this article too!
FPE Stab-Lok® or Federal Pacific Electric Stab-Lok® circuit breakers can fail to trip at an alarming rate. In the original testing, at a modest overload (135% of rating) switches that had never been touched (never mechanically switched) were energized on both poles. These failed 25% of the time, followed by a lockup that meant the switch would never trip in the future at any overload. Once these switches had been flipped on and off (mechanically energized), failures increased to 36%!
Worse, when individual poles on these switches were energized under the same conditions, 51% of the "virgin" switches failed, and for switches that had been mechanically energized, a whopping 65% of them failed!1
In the most recent independent tests of FPE Stab-Lok® equipment, using a larger pool of FPE Stab-Lok® circuit breakers than the older CPSC and Wright Malta tests found significantly higher failure rates of FPE Stab-Lok® circuit breakers, including a look at critical safety failures (breaker failed to trip at 200% of rated current or jammed) which found up to 80% failure rate for FPE Stab-Lok® GFCI circuit breakers (n=4), 12% failure rate for double pole FPE Stab-Lok® circuit breakers (n=120), and a 1% failure rate for FPE Stab-Lok® single pole circuit breakers (n=345). (To download this article see "Technical Reports" below.)
When a circuit breaker will not trip in response to an overload there is a serious risk of fire.
Homeowners and renovators who encounter these panels should replace the entire panel and circuit breaker set with new equipment. Panel replacement, can involve significant expense, typically $800 to $1200 depending on service size and other factors.
Do not simply replace individual FPE Stab-Lok® circuit breakers: first of all, there is no data suggesting that new stock, replacement FPE breakers, or "new old stock" FPE breakers found in storage somewhere perform any better than the ones already in the FPE Stab-Lok® panel. Second, there are other functional and safety concerns in the panel besides the breakers themselves. We've seen panel bus damage, panel bus meltdowns, and failure of breakers to remain secured in or onto the connecting bus itself.
For several reasons I do not recommend attempting to "repair" an individual failed Stab-Lok® breaker by buying a replacement either from used stock, new stock, or "compatible" stock:
A few other warnings:
In sum, if you could replace all the FPE Stab-Lok® equipment with (somehow magically obtained) all "new" FPE Stab-Lok® equipment (found in a used-or new-old-stock warehouse for example) the risk level for the building would not be sufficiently different from before the replacement and would remain high: there remains a latent risk of fire from failure of these breakers to trip in response to overcurrent.
Replacement Federal Pacific Electric FPE Stab-Lok® Panels is Recommended
For some cost and method alternatives when replacing an Federal Pacific Electric Stab-Lok® Panel or "load center" see REPLACEMENT PANELS which describes conventional Option#1 - "remove and replace" the electrical panel and Option#2 - FPE Load Center Replacement using Cutler Hammer (CH) Adjustable Retrofit Kit
See FPE REPLACEMENT BREAKERS for details about and advice against replacement circuit breakers sold for retrofit or installation into Federal Pacific Electric Stab-Lok® electrical panels.
Reader Discussion & Comments about the FPE Stab-Lok Hazard
Question: Thanks for the FPE warning
(Aug 21, 2011) TX Homeowner said:
I've just learned about the FPE Stab-Lok panels and although, after having the panel for 50 years and having no problems until today, I am replacing the panel and all breakers tomorrow. It will cost $2,000 but if it saves the life of me and my family, it's worth it. Thanks for the warning.
Thanks for the feedback TX homeowner.
Kudos for being safe.
Question: I want to replace the whole unit - is there financial help?
(Nov 5, 2011) ME Homeowner said:
Appreciate the info! Our FPE box with stab-lok breakers has been in place since the house was built in 1980. We are lucky in that we have never had any issues, and all the breakers have worked perfectly, even up to today. I would be interested however, in replacing the whole unit, but the expense would be way too much for me right now (primarily the labor costs). Is there any chance that these units have such a bad reputation that my homeowners insurance might recognize this and step up to help me with the costs?
ME please see these two articles
Question: difficult to remove FPE panel
(Jan 26, 2012) Eric Doute said:
Id like to comment that this is also one of the hardest panels to get out of the wall. They have a 1/2" lip that sits recessed in the wall causing you to botch and cut it out with extreme predudice. I had a big 200amp tall boy I had to rip out. It also had laminated plywood wall surface. This may add an hour or two to the job if its recessed into the wall. Also you have to be careful of not hitting any wires with the sawzaw. If you do the work yourself, make sure you pull out the meter before you start any cutting to risk hitting live wires.
Eric, I appreciate the warning about difficulty removing an FPE Stab-Lok electrical panel but I suspect that the removal problem ou describe has nothing to do with the panel design in this case. Rather the issue is how your particular electrical panel was installed p with a lack of working space. Still, understanding the trouble one may run into when replacing any electrical panel helps understand the cost of hiring a professional to do the job.
Question: Why do I find replacement FPE breakers only on E-Bay?
(Feb 11, 2012) Bryan Skruck said:
I just bought a rental property that is 40 years old with one of these panels. I noticed that because of the design that the breakers aren't secure in the panel and that is what I believe has caused the panel bus damage. I seem to have the opposite problem with the breakers tripping prematurely a 12.5 A load trips a 20 A breaker (again, I think it has to do with the design and the poor contact between the breaker and the panel bus)
I was wondering why I couldn't find these breakers anywhere except on e-bay. I was going to add a diishwasher but it looks like there's another more important project first. I'll have to make sure none of the circuits are overloaded myself since there seems to be a substantially high rate of breakers failing to trip.
In an effort to not completely discredit the load center itself and Federal Pacific, part of my problems have stemmed from improper breaker installation. There is a wiring diagram on the panel that shows breaker sizes at pole locations. Each panel has spaces that accommodate either full size (NA style) or 1/2 size (NC style) thin breakers.
It appears that the installing contractor decided to use thin style breakers throughout, either because he was in a hurry and didn't have any full size breakers on hand at the time of installation, or didn't follow directions. I'm pretty sure this wasn't the doing of a homeowner after the fact because the way the panel is laid out. My problems are occurring where the thin style breakers were used in a full size breaker space. Those are the ones that are loose and arching. The panel bus is now damaged, so the entire box must be replaced. I realize there are other problems with the breakers not tripping when overloaded as well, but my problem with arching and premature breaker tripping was due to improper installation.
Was wondering about the picture posted at the top of the article. Clearly that breaker suffered water damage as indicated by the rusted rivets at the top. If water is leaking into your electrical panel, you’re going to have a problem!
Bryan, there are vendors of replacement circuit breakers for FPE Stab-Lok electrical panels, discussed and warned-about at FPE REPLACEMENT BREAKERS.
Question: defective FPE breaker without popping?
(Apr 21, 2012) Dennis said:
Can beaker be defective with out popping. reason just replaced one
Yes Dennis, there are other hazards including
Question: buying a house with and FPE Stab-Lok panel
May 2, 2012) Paul Scott said:
Good Evening, thinking of buying a house, it has the FPE Stab-Lok panel. My inspector pointed it out, and we advised the seller. Her response was that she has lived in the house for 25 year and hasnt had a problem! so, seeing how these panels are not "ilegal" , explaining to her that it could be an issue is hard.
She was living alone for these years or with her husband so possible there wasnt a load on the system. However i will have 3 kids and two adults! if she doesnt agree to fixing this, if i put GFI outlets in the bath rooms will this at least help in the shock department?? if you have anything i can use to persuade the seller please let me know
Paul, in my opinion the cost of replacing an electrical panel is such a tiny part of the value of a home that it certainly ought not to deter a home buyer. And it should be replaced.
As we comment in various FPE articles, absence of evidence of a "problem" may simply mean that the breakers were never exposed to an overcurrent, so were never called-on to trip. It's also the case that there may be already-jammed circuit breakers in the FPE panel that simply haven't been noticed by anyone if no one has tried to work on a supposedly switched-off circuit.
Adding GFCI's in an older home reduces shock hazards but will not address the no-trip problem back in the electrical panel.
Question: if I replace the FPE panel do you think the building is safe?
(June 27, 2012) Cathy - Westchester NY said:
There is a Federal Pacific Electric Stab-Lok Panel in the co-operative apartment that I'm intested in purchasing. Even if I replace the box do you think the building itself is safe?
Cathy, I am GUESSING that you mean that you're worried that other FPE Stab-Lok panels remain in place in your building. My opinion is, I agree with the implication of your question: replacing your panel reduces the electrical fire risk significantly within your co-op apartment, and thus somewhat reduces risk for your co-owners; but until everyone replaces their panel, risks remain. Beyond that, no one in their right mind could possibly state, by email or by a web page comment, that a building then know nothing about is "safe" or "unsafe".
Question: Comment: multiple FPE panel flaws mean the panels should be replaced.
(Sept 3, 2012) Greg said:
Many of the FPE panels have other design flaws that create unnecessary hazards for those of us who have to service them. Many of the breaker handles require you to push them toward the "on" position in order to remove them. They also used a bolt and nut to secure the dead-front panel, which becomes a problem especially since most of them are rusted by this point. The result is that the cover is rarely secured properly and presents a major shock hazard to the home owner.
This, along with the known fire hazards, should be plenty enough evidence to replace these panels as soon as possible. The design is poor and the breakers have several known problems. As and electrician, I assure you my first concern is safety. I remember being schooled as a young apprentice about the dangers of working on these panels, rightfully named "the widow maker". Replace it.
Question: is my FPE panel involved in the recall?
(Apr 3, 2013) Barbara Walters said:
Our house was built in 1986 and a Federal Pacific box was used (Y82647A-Rev.A),I don't see StabLok on the box but can you tell me if this unit would be in the recall?
Yes Federal Pacific was an earlier brand of the identical StabLok Design. Click to expand the Related LInks near page top to see a series of product identification articles.
There was no recall. The buyer of FPE took an allowance for a recall and decided to pocket the money.
(Apr 8, 2014) Mike said:
You do not have to replace your entire panel if you have Federal pacific Stab-lok style breakers. There is a company, Connecticut-Electric, Inc that makes brand new, ETL listed, same test as UL, circuit breakers that are safe to use and completely safety agency listed. There seams to be a "red scare' out there about these breakers, yes, there were some issues. Even the federal government couldn't make a decision based upon the facts present to say that Federal Pacific breakers are actually unsafe. Why spend all that money replacing your entire panel, which most electrician love to hear. They just see dollar signs.
Watch out: Replacement FPE Stab-Lok® circuit breakers are unlikely to reduce the failure risk of this equipment. We recommend that residential FPE Stab-Lok® electrical panels be replaced entirely or the entire panel bus assembly be replaced, regardless of FPE model number or FPE year of manufacture. We do not sell circuit breakers nor any other products.
(Apr 8, 2014) DanJoeFriedman (mod) said:
I cannot imagine worse advice than your opinion stated below. There are several very serious concerns:
WATCH OUT: One wonders who Mike is and what might be his connection with the company he touts.
Reader follow-up comments "Would you prefer that this escalated further? "
(Apr 9, 2014) Mike said:
You are correct, My position with Connecticut Electric is inside sales.
We make the UBIF line of circuit breakers, Which is a Federal Pacific REPLACEMENT circuit breaker that is ETL listed to the UL molded case 489 standard. We have been manufacturing for nearly 20 years the UBIF breakers, and have not seen an issue with the design or function.
You claims of unsafe, recalls, and fire hazards, etc are all based upon fiction. You are making false claims. Would you prefer that this escalated further?
Reply: Stating the FPE Hazard Accurately
(Apr 9, 2014) DanJoeFriedman (mod) said:
Mike, with all due respect, and appreciation that you want to discuss this matter, you completely mis-state the CPSC position. The issue was not closed with a statement of absence of evidence. The history of the matter is that CPSC management, in negotiation with FPE attorneys decades ago, overrode their own engineers and the results of that work to decide to stop the investigation. There is not a shred of doubt that the hazards are real. That information is supported by the CPSC's research, by very extensive independent research, and by decades of reports of serious failures, fires, and even a few fatalities.
Before you try threats or other silly action that could embarrass you, you should read the independent research in this matter.
Take a look at
If you have independent research on the failure rates of FPE replacement breakers from various sources, we would be glad to see it and would be glad to add that to information for our readers to consider.
It would be great for consumers if there were a field repair for FPE equipment that addressed the breaker hazards, bus hazards, and that were supported by independent research.
Unfortunately, just plugging in a breaker from an unknown (or possibly even a known source some of which included both used and new old stock FPE breakers) into an existing FPE panel does not address the known hazards. To date, the effective repair that may be less costly than a whole new panel has been the installation of CH's replacement bus and breaker assemblies.
Finally, Aronstein's research has been continued by another independent electrical engineering researcher, David Carrier who has added additional brands and breaker sources to the mix; to my knowledge that work is ongoing and additional results have not been released.
As Mr. Carrier has continued independent testing of circuit breakers for no-trip failures, if you are interested in providing [funding for an in-the-market-place purchase of ] some of your product for independent testing let me know and I'll check with David - I'd expect that he'd welcome a chance to have a source of new or old product for failure testing.
[Aronstein has pointed out the importance of testing circuit breakers that are obtained in the same market place in which consumers will purchase them, thus avoiding any suggestion that any manufaturer might have pre-tested, pre-qualified, or otherwise skewed independent test results with product supplied directly from its producer. ]
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