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BPA in plastic bottles & containers: this article describes the types of plastics used in bottles, containers, and tanks, including for water storage. We identify possible contaminants that may leach into drinking water, other consumable liquds & foods or other products from some types of plastic such as bisphenol A or BPA, an estrogen mimicking chemical that forms one component of some plastic food and liquid containers. Also see PLASTIC CONTAINERS, TANKS, TYPES for our guide to other plastic types & the containers where they are used.
Our photo of plastic water bottles (left) shows that by late September 2010, many water bottles for sale advertise that they are BPA-free. The bottles in our photo were on display at a Dicks Sporting Goods store in Poughkeepsie, NY.
Concerns about BPA stem from studies in lab animals and cell cultures showing that it can mimic the hormone estrogen. It is considered an "endocrine disruptor," a term applied to chemicals that can act like hormones. But whether it does any harm to people is unclear.
OPINION: the lack of clarity about the possible harm of endocrine disruptors (hormone mimicking chemicals) may stem in part from research supported by and claims confounded by the substantial financial interests involved. There appears to be sufficient evidence to treat the action of hormone mimicking chemicals with great caution and due concern.
Hormone mimicking chemicals may mimic estrogen but behave in very different ways, including accumulating in rather than being excreted from the human body, having a very long half-life (decades), and therefore playing a role, possibly a root-causal role in a variety of illnesses and complaints including (as listed by the Times and using estrogen chemicals as an example) breast cancer, diabetes, obesity, prostate cancer, uterine cancer, immune disorders, cardiovascular disorders, nervous system disorders, and possible effects on learning and behavioral disorders, even trans-generational effects (problems appearing in later generations of a human or other animals).
Because BPA binds to hormone receptors in both men and women and at all ages beginning at least with the embryo, a wide range of effects may be found.
BPA's are widely used in the production of some adhesives such as epoxies, epoxy resins, some flooring products, food can linings, some eyeglass and safety lenses, nail polish, food packaging, polycarbonate plastics, water filters, water pipe liners, even white dental fillings (epoxies). BPA used for lining water or food containers has been found to leach into the liquid or food contained, depending on the chemistry of the contained substance, and including peas, mixed vegetables, and mushrooms.
The Times article continued:
About half a dozen [U.S.] states have banned BPA in children's products ... This year a presidential panel on cancer and the environment said there was a "growing link" between BPA and several diseases, including cancer, and recommended ways to avoid BPA, like storing water in bottles free of it and not microwaving food in plastic containers. Some cancer experts said the report overstated the case against chemicals, but the concerns it raised seem to reflect growing public worries.
OPINION: Readers interested in the subtle but powerful effects of hormone mimicking chemicals and endocrine disruptors that appear in the environment, their sources, effects, and risks, should also see Our Stolen Future, Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers and discussed at Reviewers below. Quoting from Amazon:
This text identifies the various ways in which chemical pollutants in the environment are disrupting human reproductive patterns and causing such problems as birth defects, sexual abnormalities, and reproductive failure.
... In 2008 a government study of 2,517 people of age 6 and older found that 93 percent had BPA in their urine. ... Children had higher levels than adults ... detected in umbilical cord blood of newborns ... children take longer to get rid of it ...
... Just finding a chemical in people does not mean that it is doing any damage, and there is no definitive proof that BPA harms humans ... [correlations observed between BPA levels and various health problems do not necessarily prove cause and effect - paraphrasing]
... The National Toxicology program also says, " The possibility that BPA may affect human development cannot be dismissed" ... EPA... "There are questions about its potential impact, particularly on children's health and the environment." ... FDA... infants are "a potentially sensitive population for BPA" because their brains and endocrine systems are less efficient than adults' at detoxifying and eliminating foreign substances.
Significant and discussed in Our Stolen Future is the observation that at certain critical points in the development of animals, presumably including humans, exposure to extremely low levels of endocrine disruptor chemicals, perhaps just a few molecules, or in the parts per trillion, is sufficient to cause disruption of the animal's development, including proper sex differentiation, or the lack of it that produced androgynous ducks unable to reproduce under such conditions.
The significance of this finding includes the observation that an important medical effect that occurs with exposure to chemicals in extremely low concentrations means that experiments to test for correlations between chemical exposure and subsequent serious medical problems will be deeply flawed if, for example, the experimental design does not include testing for the presence of the chemical at extremely low levels.
BPA is considered an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), bioaccumulative (B), and persistent in the environment (P).
Are BPA-containing Plastics the Only Potential Plastic Hazard?
Watch out: Other plastics may pose hormone mimicking or other chemical hazards: research conducted by Yang-Bittner et als and published in 2011 found problems with a wide range of BPA-free plastic products, and in 2012 an NPR news report  quoted Bittner as follows:
We found that most other plastic products also released chemicals having estrogenic activity," Bittner explains. He says even products that had no estrogenic activity when they came off the shelf changed under certain conditions, "such as boiling, microwaving, dishwashing or exposing to sunlight.
... Many endocrinologists think it's time to identify chemicals that act on any of the body's hormone systems. Biologist Tom Zoeller at the University of Massachusetts says it doesn't make sense to focus only on chemicals that act like estrogen.
... Regulators are discussing ways to identify a broad range of so-called endocrine-disrupting chemicals. But even as agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration look to new potential threats, they still haven't reached a conclusion about some old ones — not even BPA.
And in an email to AIHA members (August 2012) AIHA, reporting on the NPR news article, commented as follows:
In 2007, Eastman Chemical began marketing a tough new BPA-free plastic called Tritan. About a year ago, a scientist named George Bittner published a study of more than 400 plastic products, including some made with Tritan. Bittner's study found problems with a wide range of BPA-free products, including Tritan. Eastman responded to the study by declaring that Tritan products are not only BPA-free but EA-free, and it filed a lawsuit against CertiChem and PlastiPure.
Is BPA in Your Plastic Container? Look for a code 7 recycling symbol
As we discuss at PLASTIC CONTAINERS, TANKS, TYPES, containers marked with recycling symbol #7 plastics - Plastics-other (includes polycarbonate plastics) (Nalgene Corp. produces lexan water bottles) - may leach BPA - Bisphenol-A (health concerns).
Note: while BPA-containing plastic containers are expected to carry the #7 recycling label, according to the New York Times (7 Sept. 2010), not all plastics labeled with recycling symbol #7 are in fact BPA-containing. 
In response to consumer rejection, by mid 2012 in the U.S. manufacturers were no longer using BPA in baby bottles and "sippy cups", and in July 2012 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that baby bottles and children's drinking cups could no longer be produced to contain bisphenol A.
Interestingly a July 2012 New York Times report noted that this new prohibition against use of BPA in baby bottles would not apply to the us of BPA in other containers (such as water bottles and soft drink containers). The FDA declared BPA safe in 2008, then began noting possible health risks two years later in 2010.
Comparing the U.S. and E. U. Approaches to BPA & Other Possibly-Harmful Chemicals
In the European Union regulators restrict or ban the use of a chemical if there are plausible health concerns even if technical proof has not been completed - referred to as a "better safe than sorry" approach.
In the United States chemicals are not banned from use unless there is proof that they are harmful - as step that can be technically difficult to complete, as we describe at "Conflicting Opinions and Difficulty of Research About Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water"
BPA Bisphenol-A Formula, MSDS Information & Synonyms
Bisphenol A has been used in the production of certain hard plastics in the U.S. since the 1960's. According to a BPA MSDS provided by Sigma-Aldrich, with edits and added information from the UK.
Formula for BPA Bisphenol-A: C15H16O2
CAS No: 80-05-7
EINECS No: 201-245-8
Annex I Index No: 604-030-00-0
Emergency Overview: [Note that an MSDS and its data are expected to pertain to direct chemical exposure in industry, not environmental exposure to trace levels of the substance]
Irritating to respiratory system and skin. Risk of serious damage
to eyes. May cause sensitization by skin contact.
Target organ(s): Liver. Bone marrow.
Note: Sigma-Aldrich Inc.,
shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or
from contact with the above product. Other terms apply.
Bisphenol-A, a Safety and Handling Guide, The Society of Plastics Industry, Inc. SPII, & Association of Plastics Manufacturers of Europe APME, web-search 09/07/2010, original source: http://www.bisphenol-a.org/pdf/BPAsafe.pdf
Comparing the Health Effects of BPA to DES - Diethylstilbestrol
The same September 2010 NY Times article describes
"... the most notorious example of an endocrine disruptor ... the drug diethylstilbestrol, or DES, which was given to pregnant women in the 1950's in the mistaken belief that it could prevent a miscarriage. The drug turned out to be a disaster, causing vaginal cancers and reproductive problems in some of the women's daughters and abnormalities in the reproductive organs of some sons. But DES is a far stronger estrogen mimic than is BPA, and women were exposed to much higher doses of it."
After she had suffered a miscarriage and the parents were continuing to try to have a successful second child, the author's mother was given DES in the early 1940's when it was a new "miracle drug" that was so difficult to obtain and considered so special that it was brought from a source in New York City to Richmond VA by special air courier.
In women DES was found to be a cause of vaginal cancers that appeared much later in life.
In men DES was found to cause a variety of reproductive anomalies ranging from azoospermia (Kleinfelter's syndrome) due to failure of the vas deferens to develop past a thread-like connection, to genital size anomalies and possibly lowered testosterone levels. Anomalies discovered in the author were not detected until nearly thirty years after his birth and fortunately were not significant impactors on physical health.
In speaking with individuals, men and women, who have suffered these problems, a recurrent theme expressed is that the costs of these medical conditions, physical, financial, emotional, and even social costs, are often far greater than are reflected in the professional and dispassionate language of research.
Conflicting Opinions and Difficulty of Research About Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water
OPINION: One can cite at various reasons why readers will encounter varying opinions about the actual level of risk from various environmental contaminants including but not limited to the following:
Conflicting interests: Some parties have conflicts of interest, financial concerns, or a wish to avoid potential litigation that can arise from admitting even the smallest level of risk from environmental contaminants. Follow the money trail as part of your assessment of credibility. See Kristof's citation of the viewpoint of the American Chemical Council and the chemical industry.
Some industry spokesmen argue that excessive caution causes financial injury and needless expense or even bans on useful products. They might argue that in some cases where a safe substitute has not been found for a potentially harmful product, other injuries or risks may be worse if it is banned. For example how do we measure the comparative risks of BPA - Bisphenol-A as an endocrine disruptor possibly causing serious defects against risks of food poisoning if metal food containers are not kept safely lined against corrosion?
Difficulty of setting chemical contaminant exposure standards: because endocrine disrupters may have very significant medical effects only during a narrow time window (such as at specific steps of sex determination of a developing ovum), and because these effects may occur when only a few molecules of the problem chemical are present and affecting the cells involved, the exposure levels that appear to be of potentially great concern may be so extremely low as to far exceed any contemporary standard as well as below the levels at which industry is able to control.
These effects have been discussed by Kristof, Colborn et als, and in the 1960's by Carson (as well as hundreds of researchers, physicians, and other experts.
Subtlety and time duration before harmful effects are manifest: as documented in the texts we've cited, some physical effects in the humans or animals affected are subtle, perhaps not visible at all (DES sons and daughters for example), and while they occur at the time of gestation and development of the fetus of the human or animal involved, the actual health or reproductive impact may not be obvious for decades. (For example lowered sperm counts but not yet crossing the threshold at which a species cannot reproduce).
Consumer fear of environmental hazards can sometimes be irrational or excessive, leading to inappropriate costs for the consumer or for industry.
People are often confused about the absolute level of risk of some hazards and have difficulty comparing and responding appropriately to actual risk levels from different hazards (a client who smoked and does not wear her seat belt while in an automobile, but who was frightened of electromagnetic fields). See What is Enviro-Scare for details.
Technical difficulties in testing for extremely-low levels of some contaminants. Example, using the observation that BPA - Bisphenol-A or BPA, is an endocrine disruptor with possibly serious effects (see Our Stolen Future).
One significance of this finding includes the observation that an important medical effect that occurs with exposure to chemicals in extremely low concentrations means that experiments to test for correlations between chemical exposure and subsequent serious medical problems will be deeply flawed if, for example, the experimental design does not include testing for the presence of the chemical at extremely low levels.
Another concern is the difficulty of comparing research results that reach different conclusions, often confounded by both major differences in study design (choosing adult versus infant versus embryonic subjects or failing to test for differences in action of a chemical on different genders or racial groups) and sometimes even apparently identical studies that varied in subtle ways (controls, lab techniques, even skill of lab operators).
A related concern is that even if harmful effects from exposure to extremely low concentrations of an endocrine disruptor are occurring, teasing out and proving that relationship can be also extremely difficult. Finally, whenever a study appears to discover that extremely low levels of exposure to something are harmful, questions are raised about the possibilities of confounding effects of other chemicals or contaminants that may be present both in equally small amounts or even in much larger quantities.
Omission of possible cumulative effects of multiple environmental contaminants is a feature of most studies for obvious technical reasons. But as a result, possible cumulative, compounding, or interactive effects of the exposure to environmental contaminants likely to be encountered by a human or other animal are at risk of being overlooked or underestimated.
For example at least some studies seeking the cause of elevated breast cancer among women living on Long Island, NY may have failed to consider possibly multiplicative effects of several ultra-low-level contaminants ubiquitous in the Long Island NY aquifer, very low level radiation in Long Island Sound ascribed to the Long Island Shoreham Nuclear Facility, proximity to New York City, high exposures to airborne contaminats originating from dense automobile traffic, etc. See Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.
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 Bisphenol-A MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet, Sigma-Aldrich Corp., web search 09/07/2010, original source: http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~choi/MSDS/Sigma-Aldrich/BISPHENOL%20A.pdf, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 3050 Spruce St., St. Louis MO 63103, Technical: 314-771-5765, Emergency: 414-273-3850 Ext. 5886.
 Bisphenol-A, a Safety and Handling Guide, The Society of Plastics Industry, Inc. SPII, & Association of Plastics Manufacturers of Europe APME, web-search 09/07/2010, original source: http://www.bisphenol-a.org/pdf/BPAsafe.pdf
 "In Feast of Data on BPA Plastic, No Final Answer", Denise Grady, The New York Times, 7 September 2010, p. D1.
 Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival?--A Scientific Detective Story, Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, John Peter Meyers. Plume-Penguin Publishing, 1997, ISBN 0-452-27414-1., ISBN13: 9780452274143. This book is a seminal work on endocrine disruptors (chemical contaminants having impact at extremely low levels in the environment).
Recommended by Daniel Friedman, this book is a critical update to the landmark Silent Spring by Rachel Carson and discusses the effects of minute trace amounts of chemical contaminants in the environment. The text "Identifies the various ways in which chemical pollutants in the environment are disrupting human reproductive patterns and causing such problems as birth defects, sexual abnormalities, and reproductive failure. Reprint. Tour. NYT."
Amazon.com Review: By O T (Ontario, BC) - 'Our Stolen Future' is a great introduction to one of the most important scientific discoveries in our time. Having recently completed a thesis project at university on Endocrine Disruptors, I have reviewed hundreds of papers on the subject. This book is a good clear overview of the scientific literature on EDs. The authors are experts - Theo Colborn is largely responsible for creating the field by bringing together diverse researchers so they could see the big picture of their work. Many of the principle investigators are interviewed and quoted at length on the way chemicals participate in and interfere with delicate hormonal systems in animals (including humans). The major accomplishment of the book is to make an easy-to-follow story out of complex research. Many resources are available to help you assess the reliability of this story, and the best thing to do if you have any doubts is read review articles in scientific journals (which are easier to understand than technical papers). The Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) have a guidebook for health-care professionals on Endocrine Disruptors, and the US EPA has many reports on the matter. Beware of people or websites who try to 'debunk' this book (or the science behind it) by simply declaring it false, flawed or disproven. There is far too much supporting research for so simple a refutation.
OPINION: Significant and discussed in this book is the observation that at certain critical points in the development of animals, presumably including humans, exposure to extremely low levels of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDC's) (such as BPA - Bisphenol-A or BPA, Diethylstilbestrol - DES, dioxins, PCBs, and chemicals used in the production of certain cleansers, dyes, flame retardants, plastics, pesticides, white papers ) perhaps just a few molecules, or in the parts per trillion, is sufficient to cause disruption of the animal's development, including proper sex differentiation, or the lack of it that produced androgynous ducks unable to reproduce under such conditions.
A endocrine disruptor is a synthetic chemical compound that mimics natural hormones when it is taken into the body of a human or other animal. It "disrupts" the endocrine system by turning on or off normal chemical signals that in turn can affect normal hormone levels, bodily functions, and significantly, the development of embryos. Further, unlike naturally occurring hormones ingested, for example from plants (phytoestrogens), synthetically-generated hormones accumulate in the body and can have a half-life of decades or longer.
One significance of this finding includes the observation that an important medical effect that occurs with exposure to chemicals in extremely low concentrations means that experiments to test for correlations between chemical exposure and subsequent serious medical problems will be deeply flawed if, for example, the experimental design does not include testing for the presence of the chemical at extremely low levels. A related concern is that even if harmful effects from exposure to extremely low concentrations of an endocrine disruptor are occurring, teasing out and proving that relationship can be also extremely difficult.
 Silent Spring, Rachael Carson, Mariner Books; Anv edition (October 22, 2002), ISBN-13: 978-061824906.
Amazon.com Review: Silent Spring, released in 1962, offered the first shattering look at widespread ecological degradation and touched off an environmental awareness that still exists. Rachel Carson's book focused on the poisons from insecticides, weed killers, and other common products as well as the use of sprays in agriculture, a practice that led to dangerous chemicals to the food source. Carson argued that those chemicals were more dangerous than radiation and that for the first time in history, humans were exposed to chemicals that stayed in their systems from birth to death. Presented with thorough documentation, the book opened more than a few eyes about the dangers of the modern world and stands today as a landmark work.
 "Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project," (Past Initiative), National Cancer Institute, U.S. National Institutes of Health, web search 09/07/2010, original source:http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/LIBCSP/Overview.html
Quoting from NCI-NIH: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) is a multistudy effort to investigate whether environmental factors are responsible for breast cancer in Suffolk and Nassau counties (Long Island), NY, as well as in Schoharie County, NY, and Tolland County, CT. The investigation began in 1993 ...
In summary, the LIBCSP studies have not identified any environmental factors that could be responsible for the elevated incidence of breast cancer on Long Island. No association was found between exposure to organochlorine compounds and increased risk of breast cancer. The compounds examined included the organochlorine pesticides DDT (and its metabolite DDE), dieldren, and chlordane, or with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
PCBs are a group of organochlorine compounds found in coolants and lubricants in transformers, capacitors, and other electrical equipment, and some consumer products. Both DDT and PCBs persist in the environment although DDT and use of PCBs in new equipment have been banned in the United States since the 1970s.The investigators also did not find an association between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and increased risk of breast cancer.
Three suggestions of associations between certain environmental exposures and increased risk of breast cancer were found. However, these possibilities would require confirmation in other population studies. The three findings concerned exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are ubiquitous pollutants caused by incomplete combustion of various chemicals including diesel fuel and cigarette smoke (see Dr. Gammon below); proximity to hazardous waste sites (see Dr. O'Leary); and the organochlorine compound ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) (see Dr. Stellman).
 Barrett JR 2010. Attention-Worthy Association: Prenatal Phthalate Exposure and Later Child Behavior. Environ Health Perspect 118:a172-a172. doi:10.1289/ehp.118-a172b, Online: 01 April 2010 - Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Induce Developmental Neurotoxicity in a Human in Vitro Model: Evidence for Endocrine Disruption
Web search 06/30/2010, original source: http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?
Quoting: Human exposure to phthalates is ubiquitous due to widespread commercial use. Although the compounds are reported to be rapidly metabolized, concentrations in the body appear to remain fairly stable due to ongoing exposure. The United States and Europe have banned some phthalates from consumer products primarily on the basis of reproductive toxicity data. However, not all phthalates are regulated; meanwhile, research indicates toxicity may extend to other endocrine targets such as the thyroid gland, which is critical for proper neurodevelopment. A new study now reports an association between prenatal exposure to certain phthalates and adverse effects on test scores used to evaluate children’s behavior and executive functioning [EHP 118:565–571; Engel et al.].
 Chem-Tainer Industries, 361 Neptune Avenue, West Babylon, NY 11704, Phone: (631) 661-8300, Toll Free: 1-800-ASK-CHEM,
Chem-Tainer Representatives are available 8 AM - 8 PM Eastern Time
Fax: (631) 661-8209800-275-2436, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org - Web Search 06/30/2010, original source: http://www.chemtainer.com/watertanks/vertical.aspx
 Sax L 2010. Polyethylene Terephthalate May Yield Endocrine Disruptors. Environ Health Perspect 118:445-448. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901253, Web Search 06/30/2010 original source: http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?article
URI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.0901253 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is widely used to make clear plastic bottles for bottled water and containers for other beverages, condiments, and cosmetic products. There is concern that estrogenic chemicals such as phthalates may leach into the contents from bottles made from PET, although PET is not a phthalate derivative. Sax (p. 445) describes several studies suggesting that water from PET bottles can have estrogenic activity in some bioassays and that phthalates might leach from PET bottles. The author notes the difficulties in evaluating these studies, especially in cases where there may have been prior contamination of the water or the containers with estrogenic agents or phthalates. Sax suggests that the phthalate content of PET bottles, if present, might vary as a function of the acidity of the product and the temperature and duration of storage. Sax also makes the observation that other nonphthalate chemicals such as antimony, which is used as a catalyst in the polycondensation of PET, might also contribute to the endocrine-disrupting activity of products stored in PET containers. The widespread use of PET plastic for a variety of applications suggests that additional research is needed.
 López-Carrillo L, Hernández-Ramírez RU, Calafat AM, Torres-Sánchez L, Galván-Portillo M, Needham LL, et al. 2010. Exposure to Phthalates and Breast Cancer Risk in Northern Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 118:539-544. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901091
Web Search 06/30/2010, original source: http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.0901091
Keywords: breast cancer, case–control study, endocrine disruptors, environment, Mexico, phthalates, risk assessment, urinary metabolites.
Quoting: Conclusions: We show for the first time that exposure to diethyl phthalate, the parent compound of MEP, may be associated with increased risk of BC [breast cancer], whereas exposure to the parent phthalates of MBzP and MCPP might be negatively associated. These findings require confirmation.
Quoting the Editor's Summary: Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental pollutants used primarily as plasticizers of polyvinyl chloride and as additives in consumer and personal care products. Research has shown that phthalates can have effects on reproductive health and development. Few studies have investigated potential adverse effects of phthalates in women. In a population-based case–control study, López-Carrillo et al. (p. 539) examined the association between urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and breast cancer. Phthalate metabolites were detected in urine samples in at least 82% of women. The geometric mean concentrations of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) were higher in cases than controls, whereas controls had significantly higher concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) than cases. After adjusting for risk factors and other phthalates, urinary concentrations of MEP were positively associated with breast cancer, and the association w
as stronger among premenopausal women. In contrast, there were significant negative associations between monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) or MCPP and breast cancer.
 Koike E, Yanagisawa R, Sadakane K, Inoue K-i, Ichinose T, Takano H 2010. Effects of Diisononyl Phthalate on Atopic Dermatitis in Vivo and Immunologic Responses in Vitro. Environ Health Perspect 118:472-478. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901255 - Web Search 06/30/2010, original source: http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.0901255 Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a principal plasticizer in many polyvinyl chloride products, has been shown to have an adjuvant effect on immunoglobulin (Ig) production in mice. However, the effects of DINP on allergic diseases have not been fully elucidated.
Conclusions: DINP can aggravate AD-like skin lesions related to Dp. The mechanisms of the aggravation might be mediated, at least partly, through the TSLP-related activation of dendritic cells and by direct or indirect activation of the immune cells.
Quoting Editor's Summary Epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to phthalate esters such as di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) may be associated with the development of asthma, wheezing, and allergic symptoms. Koike et al. (p. 472) investigated the effects of DINP on the development of another allergic disease, atopic dermatitis. These investigators induced atopic dermatitis experimentally in laboratory animals and then exposed the mice systemically to various doses of DINP for up to 16 days. Clinical scores, histology, protein level of cytokines and chemokines in ear tissue supernatants, and levels of immunoglobulin and histamine in serum were measured at the end of DINP exposure. The effects of DINP on immunologic responses of bone-marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) or splenocytes were also measured in vitro. DINP exacerbated atopic dermatitis–like skin lesions in a manner consistent with eosinophilic inflammation, mast cell degranulation, and thymic stromal lymphpoeitin expression. DINP also enhanced expression o
f cell surface activation markers on BMDCs and affected systemic immune responses on splenocytes in vitro. The authors conclude that DINP can aggravate atopic dermatitis–like skin lesions in an animal model and that the effects may be mediated, as least in part, through the thymic stromal lymphopoeitin-related activation of dendritic cells and direct or indirect activation of immune cells. These studies provide biological plausibility for other observations in humans, which suggests that exposure to plasticizers such as DINP might be associated with allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis.
 "In Feast of Data on BPA Plastic, No Final Answer", Denise Grady, The New York Times, 7 September 2010, p. D1.
 "F.D.A. Makes It Official: BPA Can't Be Used in Baby Bottles and Cups", Sabrina Tavernise, The New York Times, 17 July 2012 Science Section.
 Yang CZ, Yaniger SI, Jordan VC, Klein DJ, Bittner GD, 2011 Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved. Environ Health Perspect 119(7): doi:10.1289/ehp.1003220, Contact information for author George Bittner: http://www.biosci.utexas.edu/neuro/GeorgeBittner/index.html, [Copy on file as Yang-Bittner Plastic Study.pdf] Quoting a portion of the study's asbstract: Conclusions: Many plastic products are mischaracterized as being EA free if extracted with only one solvent and not exposed to common-use stresses. However, we can identify existing compounds, or have developed, monomers, additives, or processing agents that have no detectable EA and have similar costs. Hence, our data suggest that EA-free plastic products exposed to common-use stresses and extracted by saline and ethanol solvents could be cost-effectively made on a commercial scale and thereby eliminate a potential health risk posed by most currently available plastic products that leach chemicals having EA into food products.
 AIHA report to members, 8/2/2012, citing an NPR news update on the Yang-Bittner BPA study cited above, quoted the following: In 2007, Eastman Chemical began marketing a tough new BPA-free plastic called Tritan. About a year ago, a scientist named George Bittner published a study of more than 400 plastic products, including some made with Tritan. Bittner's study found problems with a wide range of BPA-free products, including Tritan. Eastman responded to the study by declaring that Tritan products are not only BPA-free but EA-free, and it filed a lawsuit against CertiChem and PlastiPure.
 "Legal battle erupts over whose plastic consumers should trust", Jon Hamilton, Shots, NPR's Health Blog, NPR Report, original source: http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/07/30/157592882/
[copy on file as Legal Battle Erupts Over Whose Plastic Consumers Should Trust _ Shots - Health Blog _ NPR.pdf]
 "AIHA News & Views" email news update sent to AIHA members, received 8/3/2012, [copy on file as ]
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
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Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto, have provided us with (and we recommend) Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates' Technical Reference Guide to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
Branched Drain Greywater Systems, Art Ludwig. Oasis Design. Design, construction and use of "branched drain" greywater systems: a simple design to achieve automated, reliable subsurface irrigation without pump, filter, valves or surge tank, using all off-the-shelf components.
Quality of Water in Storage Grayman, W.M. and G.J. Kirmeyer. 2000. "Protecting Your Storage Tank - An Analysis of Long- and Short-Term Options", Jacobs, K.A. 2000. In Proc. of the AWWA Infrastructure Conference. Denver, Colo.: AWWA.
Septic System Owner's Manual, Lloyd Kahn, Blair Allen, Julie Jones, Shelter Publications; (February 1, 2007), ISBN-10: 0936070404, ISBN-13: 978-0936070407 More than 28 million households have septic systems, but few homeowners know how they operate or how to maintain them. This clearly written, illustrated guide addresses that need, emphasizing conventional septic systems powered by gravity flow, filtering through soil, and the natural soil organisms that purify sewage. The book discusses maintenance, what to do if things go wrong, and alternative systems such as mounds and sand filters. Additional chapters cover graywater systems, composting toilets, and a unique history of water-borne waste disposal. This expanded edition contains three new chapters.
Tank Construction Procedures Steve Burgess, Edoret Region Company P.O. Box 6495, Eldoret, Kenya. Fax 254-321-62472. email@example.com.
Technology and Developing Countries, Practical Applications, Theoretical Issues, (Science, Technology, & Development), Routeledge. The relationship between technology and development is explored by economists, policy analysts and other experts. The adoption of technology is studied in five main areas agriculture, energy, infrastructure, the introduction of technology and the success and constraints of technological diffusion as a whole. This volume also examines the technology transfer between North and South from a perspective of training, environmental impact and aid dependency. The emphasis is not placed simply on finding problems, but ways forward are examined. By bringing together both practical and intellectual analysis, this collection signposts future directions in the technology development relationship.
Wells and Septic Systems, Alth, Max and Charlet, Rev. by S. Blackwell Duncan. McGraw-Hill Professional, 1991. Here's all the information you need to build a well or septic system yourself - and save a lot of time, money, and frustration. S. Blackwell Duncan has thoroughly revised and updated this second edition of Wells and Septic Systems to conform to current codes and requirements. He also has expanded this national bestseller to include new material on well and septic installation, water storage and distribution, water treatment, ecological considerations, and septic systems for problem building sites. - DF note: lacks detail on septic systems.
WATER PUMP REPAIR GUIDE an specific case offers an example of diagnosis of loss of water pressure, loss of water, and analyzes the actual repair cost