Guide to Setting Heating System Pressure & Temperature Controls
PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE SETTINGS, CONTROLS - CONTENTS: how to set heating system pressure & temperature for hydronic or hot water heating systems or for steam heat:What are normal hot water heat pressure & temperature levels & settings ? What are normal residential steam heat pressure & temperatures ? Where & how do I set the boiler pressure & temperature controls? Where & how do I set a steam boiler pressure & temperature? Where & how do I set the furnace temperature control? Sources of variation in pressure in hot water heating systems. Definition of PNPC point of no pressure change
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Hot water heating boiler pressure & temperature settings:
Here we explain where and how and to what numbers the pressure & temperature are set or controlled on hydronic heating boilers. We also describe where and how the pressure & temperature is controlled on residential steam boilers.
We include notes and links to detailed articles about the operation and use of controls on boilers, furnaces, and water heaters.
This article series answers most questions about all types of central heating system controls in order to aid in troubleshooting, inspection, diagnosis, and repairs.
What Are the Normal Hot and Cold Operating Pressures of Residential Hydronic (hot water) Heating Boilers?
On a residential heating boiler the automatic water-feeder/pressure reducing valve that automatically provides makeup water to the heating boiler if pressure drops below 12 psi. So 12 psi is the typical "cold" pressure for residential boilers.
12 psi is for typical U.S. / Canadian residential heating systems normal cold temperature starting pressure. U.K. and european heating systems should be pressurized to between 1 and 1.5 bar - cold.
20 psi is typical for U.S. / Canadian residential heating systems normal hot operating temperature, up to just under 30 psi, depending on the high-limit temperature setting on the boiler limit control.
If we set the boiler high-limit much over 210, on many residential systems the system pressure will exceed 30 psi and we'll see water leaking from the pressure/temperature relief valve - ultimately an unsafe condition.
If your building is taller than two floors, the installer may have needed to boost the starting "cold" water pressure for your boiler to overcome the hot water distribution piping head pressure - otherwise your heating circulators may not be able to circulate hot water.
Causes of Variation in Pressure in Hydronic Heating Systems
Watch out: the actual pressure in a hydronic heating system is tricky to pin down. System pressure is only uniform throughout the system when the circulator pump(s) are off, there is no circulation by convection, and piping is entirely and only horizontal - not a realistic situation, right? ITT Industries (B&G et als) point out in technical publications that the pressure you read on the pressure gauge is only the system pressure at that location and at that particular operating condition (temperature and circulator on or off).
The upper limit of water pressure that should occur in a hydronic heating system is determined by the setting of the pressure relief valve (PRV). System pressures should not normally reach this upper limit.
The lower limit of water pressure that should occur in a hydronic heating system is a little more complex to state but is nominally the cold-fill pressure, measured at the pressure/reducer - water/feeder valve.
The variables that determine the water pressure in the heating system include:
The initial cold water pressure established when the system was filled with water. Typical pressures (such as 12 psig) were discussed just above. Taller buildings will require higher pressures in order to actually circulate hot water (the circulator pump does not have sufficient lift capacity).
As a rule of thumb, 40 deg F. "cold" water (near standard density) gives us 0.43 psi per foot of altitude. (see above).
The pressure setting of the pressure/reducer water/feeder valve is set to maintain the system minimum "cold" pressure for proper operation. But notice that the location of the pressure/reducer - water/feed valve will affect the system pressure that it senses.
Located above or below the boiler, for example, causes the valve to see lower or higher pressures respectively on the boiler side of the valve.
The operating temperature of the heating system. In a closed system the expansion of water as it is heated will increase the system pressure.
Water does not expand at a uniform rate in response to temperature rise; based on the ITT article we cited above we figure on about a 5% increase in operating pressure at normal heating temperatures.
This is enough pressure to dump the PRV unless the system has an expansion tank (or "compression tank" in some literature) installed. Because the pipes containing heating water also expand slightly when hot ITT figures a net expansion of about 4.5% when the heating system is up to design temp.
The design, location, & condition of the expansion tank (compression tank). The expansion tank must be properly sized (based on system volume, operating temperature range, relief valve setting, initial pressure, and relative heights of the expansion tank, relief valve, circulator pump, fill point (pressure/reducer water feed valve), and the highest point or "top" of the system.
Note that expansion tank manufacturers say the tank can be installed "anywhere on the system" - that's because of the operating range capacity of a properly-selected tank, not because the tank sees the same pressure everywhere it might be installed.
The circulating pump(s) pressure differences caused when the pump is operating. Pump on or off changes pressures in the system.
Location of the boiler pressure gauge in relation to the circulator pump's discharge point (and other piping and system components)
Definition of The Point of No Pressure Change - PNPC - where the Expansion Tank is Installed
The PNPC is the location in the heating system piping installation where the compression tank is connected to the system. Note that this is not really a point of "no pressure" since there is always some pressure in the system. It is a point of no pressure change [or pressure difference] on either side of the tank's inlet fitting.
Watch out: ITT notes that despite the instructions from manufacturers that an expansion tank can be installed anywhere, installing the tank on the discharge side of the circulator pump is a mistake.
The action of the pump [if the tank is installed on the discharge side of the circulator] now
decreases the pressure below the non
operating pressure of the system everywhere
except in the small section
between the pump and the tank.
where the non operating pressure of
the system is low compared to the pump
head, the large reduction in pressure
when the pump comes on could cause
boiling in hot water systems, draw air in
through automatic vents, or even result in
pump cavitation. When the pump is
located in this way, it also can cause a
great deal of confusion. 
At PUMP, WATER PRESSURE BOOSTING we explain the relationship between building height and water pressure, and we illustrate the water pressure decrease in building water supply piping with building height. But a look at the basement water pressures in this illustration also explains the pressures that a basement located hot water heating circulator pump has to overcome.
Where & How do I Set Hot Water Boiler, Steam Boiler, or Furnace Temperature?
Hot Water Boiler Temperature Settings
Remember that the building THERMOSTATS set the desired temperature in the occupied spaces in building, not the actual temperature in the heating boiler or furnace itself. In most heating systems, turning up the thermostat simply causes the boiler or furnace to turn on.
[Click to enlarge any image]
The temperature at the boiler or furnace is controlled by local safety devices mounted right at that equipment, such as the heating boiler
AQUASTAT CONTROL shown at left.
Hydronic (hot water) Heater Pressure Gauge and Normal Pressure Ranges
Pressure and Temperature gauge on hot water or hydronic heating boilers: this gauge displays the heating boiler internal pressure and temperature.
Typical pressure for a residential boiler serving a two story home would show 12 psi cold, and less than 30 psi hot.
Over 30 psi boiler pressure will cause the pressure relief valve to open.
Typical operating temperature
settings on a boiler call for a Low temperature (boiler cut-in) between 120 and 160 °F.
Typical operating temperatures on a hydronic boiler call for a high temperature (boiler cuts off) of 180-200 °F.
If we set the boiler upper temperature too high over 200 degrees F. we're at risk of spilling at the pressure temperature relief valve.
If we set the boiler upper limit too low, there may be no relief valve problem but under some conditions we may reduce the operating efficiency of the boiler and heating system, thus increasing heating costs.
See AQUASTAT CONTROL Functions for details.
Typical operating temperature observed at the gauge will be below the high, and can be as low as
nighttime room temperature in non-heating season if no tankless coil is in use.
The temperature/pressure gauge may help in checking for
normal conditions before and during boiler operation.
However the gauge can be wrong!
This gauge shows a typical in-boiler pressure of under 20 psi, and a temperature of about 190 °F. (The boiler had just cut off on a heating cycle.)
For more diagnostic aid on finding the cause and executing the cure of abnormal heating boiler pressures see
Where do I Set the Heating Boiler Operating Pressure?
The operating pressure of a heating boiler (hot water or hydronic heat) is read at the pressure and temperature gauge (see above) and controlled by
The starting or "cold water" pressure at the boiler - typically at 12 psi is for typical U.S. / Canadian residential heating systems normal cold temperature starting pressure. U.K. and european heating systems should be pressurized to between 1 and 1.5 bar - cold. Most heating boilers are provided cold makeup water through a pressure-reducing, back-flow preventing, automatic water feeder valve -
see WATER FEEDER VALVES, HYDRONIC BOILER. The valve is adjustable but should not be changed except by a trained heating service technician.
Heating equipment has multiple safety controls designed to prevent damage to the equipment or unsafe conditions. Indirectly, or in emergency, the heating boiler pressure is limited by first, the high limit set on
the AQUASTAT CONTROL or LIMIT CONTROL, SINGLE
Heating equipment relief valves: If the temperature limit controls should fail, the boiler's temperature and pressure are released by one or more pressure/temperature relief valves:
see RELIEF VALVES - TP VALVES on hot water systems
or RELIEF VALVE, TP VALVE, STEAM BOILER on steam heating systems. The operating temperature or pressure and relief capacity of these safety devices is matched to the BTUH input of the heating appliance. Pressure relief valves on residential and most commercial heating equipment are not adjustable.
The building THERMOSTATS do not normally directly control the temperature or pressure in the heating boiler. The thermostat sets the desired temperature in the building, but to the heating boiler it is working as a simple "on" - "off" switch, turning the boiler "on" until the thermostat is satisfied (the building is warm enough), then turning the boiler "off".
Residential Steam Boiler Normal Temperature Ranges
Temperature gauge on steam heating boilers:
Because a steam boiler makes heat by producing steam - by boiling water, at sea level, the temperature at the boiler will be boiling or 212 °F.
The steam boiler pressure is controlled by the Pressure Switch, Steam Boiler - the gray box shown in our photo at left and in closeup at our photo, below.
Residential steam heating systems are almost always designed to operate at very low pressures, perhaps around .5 psi - that' s 1/2 of one psi. Click to enlarge and you can see the actual pressure settings on the steam boiler control shown at left.
If your residential steam boiler is operating at higher pressures that may be an indication that a service technician or owner was having trouble getting heat distributed through the building. Rather than finding and fixing the problem, someone is trying to "force" the steam around the system.
An experienced steam heat service technician will look at the operating pressure of your steam heating boiler and if it is not set to a normal level, the technician will look for the reason. Examples of problems that can affect the flow of steam heat through the system, leading to attempts to over pressurized the system include
Blocked condensate returns at individual steam radiators
Steam radiators tipped the wrong way
Improperly relocated steam piping that has the incorrect slope
Radiator valves that are not operating,
Radiator steam vents that are not operating properly - STEAM VENTS
For details about radiator problems see RADIATORS or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
Question: effect of furnace fan limit switch not working & other worries
(June 21, 2012) abbas said:
what the problem if furnace high switch not working
(Sept 20, 2011) John said:
On my 10 year old hydronic residential boiler, I replaced the feed water regulating valve and backflow preventer, and relief valve. On a well water supply these parts were boogered up. I adjusted the new feedwater psi to 12lbs. My expansion tank had 28lbs?(don't know why) I reduced the tank pressure to 12lbs as well. I didn't notice any water coming out of the schrader valve, so I assumed the tank (bladder type) was ok. The boiler has a tankless heater coil for domestic hot water. My perimeter heat has come on only twice so far. Since firing the boiler back up I noticed the pressure has creeped up from the cold 12psi to around 22psi. This is over two weeks now. My aquastat settings are 160 and 180 with a 15 degree differential. And these settings are working fine. My relief valve weeped prior to the adjustments with the feedwater valve and expansion tank pressure. My concern is, at boiler shut off temp of 180 will the boiler pressure level off close to 30psi. Again, I'm at around 22psi now. The expansion tank was the only external componant not replaced. Thank You, John P
(Apr 1, 2012) Muhd Nazlan from Malaysian said:
Hallo sir..i just want ask about what type of this gauge can measure pressure and temperature.
Abbas the problem with a Hi Limit switch that is not working is that the furnace is unsafe and can overheat, damaging or even ruining the heat exchanger.
Question: automatic water feeder not working
(Oct 13, 2012) Frank B said:
I have a residential steam heater that once automatically filled the water when it became low. A service technician changed my water level sight glass. I saw that he closed or opened several valves. Now my boiler has to be manually filled. Can I send you a picture for you to see what valve should be open or closed?
Use the email found at our CONTACT US link at page top or bottom to send photos and we'll be glad to comment further.
(Nov 28, 2012) Tonda Ladson said:
When I turn on the boiler to heat the house, steam stars to come out of everyplace and it ruins the paint and things hanging on the wall. It has not always done this. What could be the problem?
(Nov 20, 2014) Anonymous said:
steam escaping my gas steam boiler
Look for a steam vent that is not operating properly and needs replacement. If you see steam escaping from piping or from the boiler itself that's a different matter. In that case shut off the system and ask for help from a trained steam heating service tech.
Question: boiler turns on but no hot water at faucets
(Feb 25, 2013) Ed said:
Hello, My hot water boiler kicks on fine, however I do not get hot water at the faucet when turn it on. The water comes out warm for a minute and goes cold quickly. Any advice will be a great. Thank You Ed.
Question: Lochinvar model rbn 135 serial d029094 settings
(Feb 16, 2014) henry said:
lochinvar model rbn 135 serial d029094
my operating temp dial is set at 180 and my hi limit dial is set at 200
the boiler temp only gets up to 130-135 then kicks off untill it reaches 120 then kicks back on psi is steady at 20 all the time
have new circulator pump new expancion tank new auto fill valve
Check the aquastat settings: someone may have set the LO limit too close to or even above the HI limit. If the settings are correct then I suspect a control or control sensor problem.
Question: test to see if the aquastat control has a bad sensor?
(Feb 16, 2014) Anonymous said:
is there a way to test control sensor problem
(Feb 16, 2014) henry said:
i have 24 volts at each dial when burner is firing is there any other test i can do with a meter to see if this a control sensor problem
Interesting question, Henry, I don't know but a wiring diagram for your control might answer it. If you are talking about an aquastat on a heating boiler, typically there is a boiler temperature sensor that is inserted into a well that itself projects into the boiler water; the manufacturer recommends that the copper tubing connecting the sensor to the aquastat be bent enough to assure good pressure or contact between the sensor and the well sides, and they also may recommend use of a heat conducting paste to assure good contact; If contact is poor (or if the sensor has failed) the control may fail to respond properly to the actual boiler temperature.
So my thinking starts by observing how the boiler actually responds compared to the gauge temperature.
Unfortunately to check the sensor mount and contact you'd have to remove the whole control - a lot of trouble so not what people would try first.
That's why I stressed the importance of looking at the HI LO and DIFF settings first
(Mar 15, 2014) momma said:
Hello, My hot water boiler kicks on fine, however I do not get hot water at the faucet when turn it on. The water comes out warm for a minute and goes cold quickly. Any advice will be a great. Thank You.
To answer your question I'd need to understand more accurately how your building provides hot water (at sinks etc): is it by
- a separate, stand-alone water heater, and if so how is that heater powered: gas, oil, electricity?
- a tankless coil on the heating boiler itself (probably your case) ?
- an indirect water heater (tank) heated by a loop of heating water circulated from the heating boiler?
Question: boiler pressure problems, gauge readings, leaks at the relief valve: debugging & diagnosis
(Dec 15, 2014) Roger said:
My boiler pressure has been reaching about 32 and relief valve has been releasing water i replaced valve then noticed pressure was exceding valve pressure expansion tank is fill-trol 110 the air vent seems to be releasing water occasionally do you think it is the expansion tank.
you want to see this diagnostic article
to get at the underlying cause: could be a bad expansion tank, pressure regulator, or other causes.
(Dec 16, 2014) Roger said:
turned boiler off and closed fresh water feed to expansion tank pressure was about 32 psi and stayed there for 2 hours left fresh water feed to indirect water heater open. water pressure from well does not exceed 72 psi when I turned boiler on pressure rose to 35psi and back down to 30 psi while temp rose to 175 and then shut off and cools down to 120 with 22 psi and no zones on.
Roger pressure over 32 psi is already too high in the boiler. When the boiler is COLD the pressure would normally be around 12 psi, heating up to under 30 PSI at maximum boiler operating temp. Higher starting pressure is needed for taller buildings.
With boiler cold drop pressure to 12-18 psi. Watch to see if pressure rises while boiler remains off. I understand in cold weather when you want heat this can be difficult.
If the boiler contains a tankless coil shut water off coming into the coil to see if that is the leak source
(Dec 20, 2014) Roger said:
sorry its taken so long for me to get back i have changed the feed valve and air valve on top of separator but pressure still wants to remain around 30 my boiler is a allied mg-100 so if i can shutoff the boiler and close the return line coming into boiler i should be able to check indirect heat water tank for leaks
is that correct as the valves will release excessive heat will i have to take some pressure off the gauge first thanks for your patience.
IF you set the boiler pressure to 12 PSI when the system is cold and leave the boiler off the pressure should not increase.
IF it does there is a leak into the boiler - sometimes from a leaky water feeder / pressure reducer valve or possibly from a tankless coil (or leaks into the boiler circuit heating an indirect-fired water heater) when the boiler has one.
The TP valve releases heat and pressure trying to avoid a dangerous BLEVE explosion.
(Dec 20, 2014) Roger said:
when i drain the pressure and then open it the pressure goes to 20 psi should i have the return to the boiler open the expansion tank is new but must have 20 psi should i take some air out of it.
When I leave return open and boiler off the the pressure rises sounds like it might be the indirect fired water
Did you tap the pressure gauge to see if it's sticking?
(Dec 21, 2014) Roger said:
No tapping on gauge doesn't do anything I shut off boiler about an hour ago and no movement still at 20 psi where it goes when i cut in the feed valve after draining
(Dec 21, 2014) DanJoeFriedman (mod) said:
Roger if the gauge pressure does not fall when water is removed from the boiler, it's probably stuck or debris clogged and needs replacement. Try measuring boiler water pressure at a boiler drain using an independent gauge.
WATCH OUT for scalding burning hazards.
(Dec 22, 2014) Roger said:
gauge goes to zero when I drain boiler doesn't go up to 20 until i cut water back in
boiler just shut off at 175 degrees with 30 psi boiler cools down to 120 and now pressure is 27 boiler has been off for an hour and pressure is staying at about 27 i have replaced the expansion tank, feed valve, and air valve when i put new expansion tank in i didn't check air pressure as it was supposed to be preset amtrol filltrol but when i cut in water gauge went to 20 psi it seems that should have been 12 can't figure why psi only drops 2 or 3 psi after boiler cools down
Roger you'll only see 12 PSI when the boiler is *cold* and your system, if your home is 3 or more floors tall, may actually need a higher starting pressure. So when the boiler is off for an hour its temperature is still pretty hot. Still I'd think pressure would drop more than 2-3 psi.
If the relief valve is not spilling (which would be a second indicator of high pressure or temperature) I'd move on to make an independent measure of the actual boiler pressure, taking care not to get scalded.
At inspectapedia.com/water/Water_Pressure_Measure.php we show how you can buy or make an inexpensive independent water pressure test gauge that would work on the boiler drain - provided your boiler drain can be opened and shut without leaking.
(Dec 22, 2014) Roger said:
the relief valve is spilling the house is a ranch with boiler in basement it really seems that the gauge is accurate the spillage doesn't occur until gauge reaches 30 which is valve setting
Can i close the return from indirect water heater and close zone valve to water heater to check for leakage from water heater into boiler circuit and turn boiler on it would be isolating the water heater from boiler
You should indeed be able to isolate the indirect water heater from the boiler - as the water heater too has its own pressure relief valve.
Question: monitor boiler pressures when water supply is shut off - to check for a boiler leak
(Dec 23, 2014) dean said:
Can the "cold" pressure go to 0 if the water intake has been shut off (i.e. new water can not be introduced). Trying to determine if we have a leak, so we have turned the water intake off to ensure no new water can be supplied to the system. Cold pressure starts at 12, but after 4 to 5 days it goes to 0. The boiler does run during this time. When it is running, the pressure is either 15 or 19 depending on pump speed:
- pressure is 19 when pump set to medium position (temp rises to 150 before boiler shuts off due to temperature setting on boiler)
- pressure is at 15 when pump set to high (water temp only rises to 108 in this case).
But after 4 to 5 days, the cold pressure goes to 0. I this normal? Can it be caused by something other than a leak?
Cold pressure in a hot water heating boiler (hydronic) won't normally fall to zero unless there is a leak. Typically it'd be around 12 psi. A steam boiler pressure will drop to zero when cold.
I'd be looking for a leak.
Question: gurgling sounds in hot water heating baseboards
(2 days ago) roger said:
i get gurgling in my water baseboard units, when i bleed and fill system the relief valve leaks water starting problem over again what is happening?
Reply: check for and purge air in the hot water heating boiler & piping system
Usually gurgling means there's air in the system that has not been purged.
See inspectapedia.com/heat/Air_Bound_Heating_System.php for help with getting air out of the piping, baseboards, radiators. The bleeding you've done may not have been effective.
If the relief valve is leaking the system may be operating at too high a temperature or pressure or might be (more rarely) suffering from a water hammer problem as a circulator pump starts and stops. Or of course the TP valve itself may need replacement.
Start by purging air, then
Continue by checking for a water-logged expansion tank on your boiler.
Mike Burke said:
Thank you for your detailed, informative articles. Your information has been very helpful to me in understanding, monitoring, and maintaining my hot water heating system.
Thanks for the nice note, Mike. We work hard on this material to make it accurate, useful, unbiased, so I'm naturally elated when a reader finds it actually helpful. We also welcome content suggestions, questions, criticism. Working together makes us smarter.
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Questions & answers or comments about heating system operating pressures, temperatures, and controls for hot water and hot air heating systems and for warm air furnace systems
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 "[Heating] System Pressure in Typical Hydronic Systems", TechTalk, Vol. 20, Issue 1, January 2005, ITT Industries, Fluid Handling [copy on file]
 Domestic and Commercial Oil Burners, Charles H. Burkhardt, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York 3rd Ed 1969.
 National Fuel Gas Code (Z223.1) $16.00 and National Fuel Gas Code Handbook (Z223.2) $47.00 American Gas Association (A.G.A.), 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22209 also available from National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269. Fundamentals of Gas Appliance Venting and Ventilation, 1985, American Gas Association Laboratories, Engineering Services Department. American Gas Association, 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22209. Catalog #XHO585. Reprinted 1989.
 The Steam Book, 1984, Training and Education Department, Fluid Handling Division, ITT [probably out of print, possibly available from several home inspection supply companies] Fuel Oil and Oil Heat Magazine, October 1990, offers an update,
 Principles of Steam Heating, $13.25 includes postage. Fuel oil & Oil Heat Magazine, 389 Passaic Ave., Fairfield, NJ 07004.
 The Lost Art of Steam Heating, Dan Holohan, 516-579-3046 FAX
 Principles of Steam Heating, Dan Holohan, technical editor of Fuel Oil and Oil Heat magazine, 389 Passaic Ave., Fairfield, NJ 07004 ($12.+1.25 postage/handling).
 "Residential Hydronic (circulating hot water) Heating Systems", Instructional Technologies Institute, Inc., 145 "D" Grassy Plain St., Bethel, CT 06801 800/227-1663 [home inspection training material] 1987
 "Warm Air Heating Systems". Instructional Technologies Institute, Inc., 145 "D" Grassy Plain St., Bethel, CT 06801 800/227-1663 [home inspection training material] 1987
 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Volume I, Heating Fundamentals,
Boilers, Boiler Conversions, James E. Brumbaugh, ISBN 0-672-23389-4 (v. 1) Volume II, Oil, Gas, and Coal Burners, Controls, Ducts, Piping, Valves, James E. Brumbaugh, ISBN 0-672-23390-7 (v. 2) Volume III, Radiant Heating, Water Heaters, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, Heat Pumps, Air Cleaners, James E. Brumbaugh, ISBN 0-672-23383-5 (v. 3) or ISBN 0-672-23380-0 (set) Special Sales Director, Macmillan Publishing Co., 866 Third Ave., New York, NY 10022. Macmillan Publishing Co., NY
 Installation Guide for Residential Hydronic Heating Systems
 Installation Guide #200, The Hydronics Institute, 35 Russo Place, Berkeley Heights, NJ 07922
 The ABC's of Retention Head Oil Burners, National Association of Oil Heat Service Managers, TM 115, National Old Timers' Association of the Energy Industry, PO Box 168, Mineola, NY 11501. (Excellent tips on spotting problems on oil-fired heating equipment. Booklet.)
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
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Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto, have provided us with (and we recommend) Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates' Technical Reference Guide to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.