Photograph of building damage near Los Angeles 2000 © Daniel Friedman Steep Roof Defects List & Home Inspection Education
     


InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website.

This article lists significant steep slope roofing defects, definitions, and home inspection education topics. This article series, beginning at BUILDING DEFECTS LISTS, provides lists of common building defects and basic defect knowledge that also outline recommended curriculum content for home inspector education. The building defects and inspection points listed in these articles also guide homeowners and home buyers to building areas that merit careful attention and often point areas of safety concern or important maintenance and repair tasks.

Green links show where you are. © Copyright 2015 InspectApedia.com, All Rights Reserved.

Home Inspection Education Curriculum - Steep Roofing

Readers should see ROOFING INSPECTION & REPAIR for our complete list of articles on this topic. Also see HOME & BUILDING INSPECTORS & INSPECTION METHODS. Use the Search Box at the top or bottom of these pages to find in-depth information about building, energy savings, and indoor environment inspection, diagnosis and repair at this website.

Watch out: these inspection lists do not list all possible defects for the systems discussed, and not all home or building inspectors will examine all of the items listed here. CONTACT us to suggest corrections or additions to articles at this website.

Also see ROOF FLASHING DEFECTS LIST

These curriculae and building defect lists are based on smilar curriculum documents first prepared by Joe Scaduto, an ASHI member who prepared course material for Northeastern University's Building Inspection Certificate program in 1988, subsequently by DF, InspectApedia's editor, for New York University ca 1988 and later, with others, recommended to ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. ASHI did not adopt this material though currently that association as well as others offer extensive HOME INSPECTOR EDUCATION material. The curriculum and lists of defects are informed by additional analysis of the process of home inspection that was developed beginning Calgary, AB for Canadian and U.S. home inspector education and certification examinations in 1997. Other early contributors to home inspection education in the U.S. and Canada include Dr. Jess Aronstein, Alan Carson, Mike Casey, Mark Cramer, John Cox, Dwight Barnett, Douglas Hansen, Rick Heyl, Larry Hoytt, Bill Merrill, Kevin O'Malley, Dennis Robitalille, Keith Peddie, Pat Porzio, Roger Robinson.

1.0   ROOFING Inspection Requirements & Common Steep Slope Roof Defects List

1.1   Steep Slope Roofing Inspection Recommendations

1.1.1 Knowledge Base for Steep Slope Roof Inspections


1.    Describe the function of steep roof coverings.

2. Describe the following common roofing types:

      asphalt shingle, wood shingles and shakes, slate, clay tile, concrete tile, fiber cement, metal, roll roofing.

3.    List the materials/components of each of the roofing materials.

4.    Describe the features of adequate  installation and repair technique for each of the roofing materials, including slope, exposure, head lap, number and type of fasteners, sheathing and underlayment, weight per square, number of layers permitted.

5.    Define the following terms with respect to steep roofing:

pitch, square, hip, mansard, butterfly, shed, gable, gambrel, live loads, dead loads, ice dams, drip edge flashing, eave protection, avalanche guards, underlayment, self-sealing, starter strips, cutting the points, low slope roof, , face grain, flat grain and edge grain with respect to wood shingles,  undercoursing, underlayment, skip sheathing, solid sheathing, Dutch lap, open slating and French method with respect to slate roofing, Spanish tile and Mission tile.

6.    Outline the typical life expectancies of each roofing material.

7.    Describe the effect of these factors on the rate of aging of roofing materials:

UV exposure, color, ventilation, wind exposure, pitch, complexity of roof, foot traffic, concentrated water from drainage systems, tree branches.

8.    Identify the codes or standards which apply to steep roof coverings in your area.


1.1.2 Inspection Skills for Steep Slope Roof Inspections


1.    Describe the inspection procedure for each steep roof covering.

2. Identify the common steep roofing defects listed on the next page.

3.    Identify the implication of each defect.

4.    Identify safety issues for the inspector and occupant of the home (fall hazard and electric shock from service entrance wires).

5.    Communicate findings to client verbally and in writing, recommending corrective action where needed.

STEEP ROOFING TYPICAL DEFECTS (may not include all defects)

ASPHALT ROOF DEFECTS

      • Blisters

      • Clawing   ?? 

      • Cracking 

      • Cupping, curling

      • Damage

      • Exposed fasteners

      • Exposure too great

      • Granule loss

      • Ice dam potential           

      • Multiple layers

      • No underlayment

      • Overhangs too big, small

      • Patches 

      • Shingles – torn, missing

      • Slope too low

      • Slots wide (old)

      • Vulnerable areas

WOOD SHINGLES AND SHAKES ROOF DEFECTS 

      • Buckling

      • Cupping, curling

      • Damaged, broken or missing pieces

      • Exposed fasteners

      • Exposure too big

      • Hip and ridge pieces falling apart

      • Ice dam potential

      • Joints line up in every other row

      • Knots, flame pattern (lower quality materials)

      • Loose pieces 

      • Moss, mildew, etc.

      • Multiple layers( Duplication? JDG)

      • No interlay on shakes maybe means shingles?(may be OK)

       (Shakes on pitches of greater than 7/12 do not require interlay felts.  JDG )

      • Overhangs too big, small 

      • Patches 

      • Pieces too wide 

      • Rot 

      • Slope too low

      • Spacing too tight

      • Side-by-side

      • Splitting

      • Vulnerable areas

      • Wear-through, burn-through

SLATE ROOF DEFECTS

      • Broken Slates

      • Brown, white surface on slates

      • Cracked Slates

      • Damaged slates

      • Delaminating  (Spalling)  JDG 

      • Exposed fasteners (may be OK)

      • Exposure too great

      • Ice dam potential

      • Loose Slates

      • Missing Slages

      • Missing or loose hip, ridge, rake, eave pieces

      • Overhangs too big, small

      • Patched Slates

      • Ribbons (weak areas)(Not all ribbon types are bad) - JDG

      • Slope too low

      • Soft, crumbly Slates

      • Tarred Slates

      • Vulnerable areas

      • Moss growth on slate roof

CLAY/CONCRETE/FIBER CEMENT ROOF DEFECTS 

      • Broken roof tiles

      • Color fading

      • Cracked

      • Damaged roof tiles roof tiles

      • Efflorescence on roof tiles

      • Exposed fasteners, no fasteners

      • Exposure too great

      • Missing or loose hip, ridge, rake, eave pieces

      • Patched roof tiles

      • Slope too low (no membrane below)

      • Spalling (Have never seen spalling metal surfaces.)  JDG

      • Vulnerable areas

METAL ROOF DEFECTS

      • Buckled

      • Dent, damage

      • Exposed fasteners (may be OK)

      • Exposure too great

      • Failed fasteners

      • Ice dam potential

      • Loose

      • Missing

      • Open seams

      • Overhangs too big, small

      • Patched

      • Rust

      • Slope too low

      • Tarred  (temporary repairs better description)


ROLL ROOFING DEFECTS  (on steep or low slope roofs)

      • Algae discoloration

      • Blisters

      • Buckling or wrinkling

      • Cracks

      • Damage

      • Exposed nails not sealed

      • Granule loss

      • Open seams

      • Rusted nails, exposed nails (if not installed with ARMA exposed nail method)

      • Seams facing uphill

      • Vulnerable areas

      • Limited life expectancy

      • Parallel to eave method and parallel to rake method problems

Readers should see ROOFING INSPECTION & REPAIR for our complete list of articles on this topic. Also see HOME & BUILDING INSPECTORS & INSPECTION METHODS. Use the Search Box at the top or bottom of these pages to find in-depth information about building, energy savings, and indoor environment inspection, diagnosis and repair at this website. Watch out: these inspection lists do not list all possible defects for the systems discussed, and not all home or building inspectors will examine all of the items listed here. CONTACT us to suggest corrections or additions to articles at this website.

Also see ROOF FLASHING DEFECTS LIST

More Reading

Green link shows where you are in this article series.

...




Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Click to Show or Hide FAQs

Ask a Question or Search InspectApedia

Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.

Search the InspectApedia website

HTML Comment Box is loading comments...

Technical Reviewers & References

Publisher's Google+ Page by Daniel Friedman

Click to Show or Hide Citations & References