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STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS & DEFECTS
AGE of MOLD, HOW OLD
BASEMENT CEILING VAPOR BARRIER
BASEMENT MOLD WATER IMPACT
BRICK WALL DRAINAGE WEEP HOLES
BUCKLED FOUNDATIONS due to INSULATION?
BUILDING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT & REPAIR
CONDENSATION or SWEATING PIPES, TANKS
CONDENSATION on WINDOWS & SKYLIGHTS
DEW POINT TABLE - CONDENSATION POINT GUIDE
EFFLORESCENCE SALTS & WHITE DEPOSITS
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FLOOD DAMAGED FOUNDATIONS
FLOOD VENTS & FLOOD PORTS
FLOODS in BUILDINGS, MOLD PREVENTION
FLOOR DAMAGE DIAGNOSIS
FOOTING & FOUNDATION DRAINS
FOUNDATION BULGE or LEAN MEASUREMENTS
FOUNDATION CRACKS & DAMAGE GUIDE
FREEZE-PROOF A BUILDING
FROST HEAVES, FOUNDATION, SLAB
HUMIDITY LEVEL TARGET
ROOF ICE DAM LEAKS
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
MOLD INFORMATION CENTER
NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE
ODORS GASES SMELLS, DIAGNOSIS & CURE
SEWAGE BACKUP, WHAT TO DO
SEWAGE BACKUP TEST & CLEANUP
SEWAGE BACKUP PREVENTION
SEWAGE PUMP CLOG DAMAGE
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING EXTERIORS
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING INTERIORS
SWEATING (CONDENSATION) on PIPES, TANKS
TOILETS, INSPECT, INSTALL, REPAIR
TRAPS on PLUMBING FIXTURES
VAPOR BARRIERS & CONDENSATION in BUILDINGS
VENTILATION in BUILDINGS
WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
Building crawlspace inspection procedures & topics:
This building crawl space article series explains how to inspect, diagnose problems in, and repair building crawl spaces, including crawl space insulation & leaks or moisture control.
Information is provided about visual clues of crawl space problems, such as evidence of a history of leaks, mold contamination, insect damage, structural damage, flooding, as well as evidence of hazardous materials and conditions such as the probable presence of animal allergens, asbestos, or mold.
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Crawl Areas: Defect Recognition, Repair, Prevention for Building Crawl Space Leaks, Mold, Insulation & Ventilation
The page top sketch of the role of a dirt floor crawl space in building moisture and mold problems (above) is courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates. Photo at left is of the author, Daniel Friedman, peering into an inaccessible crawl space while suffering from a broken leg. Photo courtesy of Arlene Puentes.
[Click to enlarge any image]
The list of concerns or problems in or due to building crawl spaces is long as would be a list of opinions about what to do with crawl spaces, wet crawl spaces, moldy crawl spaces, or crawl space insulation and ventilation.
Good building science combined with a lot of experience has led to some good information on how to correct crawl space problems. Here we list crawl space problem inspection, diagnosis, and cure. Here are some things to watch out for in a building crawl space:
Key Crawl Space Inspection, Diagnosis, Repair articles
Key Crawl Space Water Entry Diagnosis and Cure Articles
List of additional building crawl space inspection and defect articles
Continue reading at CRAWL SPACE ACCESS or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
Suggested citation for this web page
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Question: What is the Best Approach to Drying out a Flooding Crawl Space?
I have been battling crawl-space moisture and ponding water problems for about 2 years now and am desperately requesting your pro-bono assistance and consultations. I am living in a senior citizen retirement house that I inherited from my deceased parents. I am on total permanent Social Security Disability for almost 10 years now. This is my only income which is $1300 per month. After many many hours, weeks, and months of calling people, searching the internet etc., I came across your excellent article and web-site. I knew from reading your material that you are the people I need to help me navigate properly through all the people and companies I have been in contact with. I didn't, (and still don't) know where to start first.
This house was built in a senior citizen community where the water-table is high and the ground gets soaked around the perimeter of the foundation and other areas of the property during heavy and even not-so-heavy rains. I have a dirt crawl-space that gets puddles in it and had a termite inspector put a not-so-good sump pump in it that the water never reaches.
Then another person told me I had mold in there and several other people told me I didn't. Had an excavator look and he told me the dirt needed to be pitched and leveled but he's never done that in a crawl space before. Even when the termite guy dug some trenches, the water just sat in the trenches.
I had water-proofing companies come and tell me differing things, all wanting thousands of dollars and none guaranteeing anything. Some say encapsulation and inside french drains, some say that's not good and outside french drains, some say putting more wall wells and vents in or digging the dirt out more so that water won't come in the vents. I consulted with a hydro science company that also said to just clean the gutters (which I already had done and they have that netting over them so they weren't too bad) and clean or get new downspouts. And it goes on and on and on.
I want to get the right people to start at the right place but am thoroughly confused now. I got free weatherization from the state because I am on limited income and on medicare, paad, and food stamps. They wrapped the pipes down there and put in a cheap black moisture barrier and fiberglass insulation on top.
I have heard and read that may make the moisture and mold problems worse. Recently I have noticed a mildew-like moldy smell coming from my forced-air gas baseboard registers and read when I put the heat on it will spread and contaminate the house even more with mold spores.
I know my carpeting needs to be removed and house painted but have been putting if off because I realize I need to get the water/moisture issues identified first as well as the mold problems corrected. I had the bathroom painted in April and shortly after I noticed the paint cracked on the ceiling which is near the attic where I suspect there may be water/mold damage.
This, I think is probably from a couple of years ago when my central air was dripping and we had a new a/c put in. So I am asking you for your help in testing for molds and dust particle analysis as well as directing me to the correct professionals in the proper order to resolve all these issues. Thank you very much for your kind consideration and assistance in advance, - B.B., Toms River NJ
Reply: A Step by Step Approach to Wet Crawl Spaces
Thank you for the interesting or I should say challenging water entry question - it helps us realize where we need to work on making our text more clear or more complete. A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that help accurately diagnose a problem.
That said, here are some things to consider,interspersed with your remarks from your own note:
Puddles in a dirt crawl space below a home, even just wet soils, invite problems with building mold contamination and wood destroying insects such as termites and carpenter ants. It's certainly a problem that needs correction. Divide your wet crawl space solution thinking into these three main topics:
If mold is not visible and there are no health complaints there might not be a big mold problem, or there may be one but as mold does not affect everyone to the same degree, you may not have noticed it.
See our article on MOLD EXPERT, WHEN TO HIRE, for help in deciding if it is cost justified or otherwise appropriate to perform some expert inspecting and testing for mold. Don't rely on mold tests without an inspection by an expert.
If your expert finds that there is a significant mold problem originating in the crawl area, also see CRAWLSPACE MOLD ADVICE.
I agree with your excavator - if the crawl space is not sloped to a common drain point you cannot easily remove water therein. It's best not to have water enter the crawl in the first place since if we let water enter but then pump it out, we are still facing mold and insect troubles stemming from high moisture in the area.
This means that the soil has a slow percolation rate. Trenches need to be pitched to a common drain point where a sump pump removes water.
The number one water entry step is gutter and leader maintenance.
You think your gutters are "clean" but a mere handful of leaves can clog a downspout and lead to gutter overflow and spillage around the building so you will want to inspect the gutter and downspout system during a heavy rainfall. Make sure downspouts drain far enough from the building that water does not enter at those locations.
Simpler and less expensive are steps to stop water entry from outside, combined with a sloped crawl surface to a common sump pit (see SUMP PUMPS), combined with 6 mil poly over the dirt to stop pumping soil moisture into the area (see CRAWL SPACE VAPOR BARRIER LOCATION).
Your hydro science company was pointing to the number one cause of wet crawl spaces
Question: Problems with odors from poly vapor barriers on crawl space floors
I have a dirt crawl space under my bedroom floor which is causing me some health problems. I am extremely allergic to mold and my husband put 6 ply visqueen on dirt floor & 2 vents in block. I became extremely sick from visqueen order and I removed it, still feeling sick but not as bad. I am closing off the 2 vents to avoid anymore air flow in crawl space.
However, I want to put something down overtop the dirt floor and adhere it to the concrete walls to avoid any further allergy problems plus have cleaner air flow in our bedroom....but the plastic's are mostly made of polyurethane which might be sensitive too also or with the combinations and exposure to the dirt floor caused more airborne mold spores & allergies.
Even in the middle of the night I feel like something is crawling & biting me....and my husband is coughing something awful and we both have headaches & sinus, breathing problems too, nausea, disoriented and confusion. I am very worried about this and want it repaired ASAP before its too late. I am looking for something to cover & seal the dirt flooring but want something that is chemical free. I would also like to know if it would be wise to put insulation up underneath the bedroom floor to help prevent from coming up thru the floor into the bedroom? Any information, suggestions, ideas would be greatly appreciated. thank you! - Suzanne
Suzanne, When choosing a poly vapor barrier for a crawl space beneath your home, indeed it makes sense to do a sniff test - some of the white 6-mil plastic vapor barriers I've seen used by building remediators were virtually odorless;
In other cases we placed the poly outdoors in the sun for a few days to help it complete its outgassing before putting it down in a crawl area. Indeed I've been bothered by horrible odor outgassing from some poly ground covers too.
You could also pour a concrete floor in the crawl area - a more costly solution that has its own concerns with temporary high moisture levels. More suggestions are at CRAWL SPACE GROUND COVERS where we describe ways to cover up dirt and stop moisture movement into the structure from the crawl space floor. Also see VAPOR BARRIERS & CONDENSATION in BUILDINGS.
But I wouldn't be too hasty to assume that plastic odors are the only concern, perhaps not even the main one, in your home. A damp dirt floor crawl space could have led to a mold problem or there could be other health and IAQ issues coming from that location or even elsewhere in the building. For example there could be hard-to-see mold contamination on wood surfaces or in fiberglass insulation if it has been exposed to wet or dampness. (See INSULATION MOLD TEST).
At MOLD INFORMATION CENTER (article link at the "More Reading" links at the bottom of this article ) you can find MOLD EXPERT, WHEN TO HIRE - that might help you decide if it's appropriate to bring in an expert for a more thorough building inspection and perhaps some tests. I'd be reluctant to ONLY blame the plastic odors (though those have bothered me too at times).
Question: What should be inspected in building crawl areas?
I am the VP for a condo association. The units are approximately 35 years old and when the last couple of unit have sold, the home inspector found a number of issues within the crawl spaces. The units (42) are individual town home type with individual unit crawl spaces. Some are physically divided by foundation, and some are divided by fire rated dry wall. We would like to know if you have any examples of what we should expect from an inspection of the crawl spaces as we are going to engage a firm to do the inspection for the association. - Anon. 1/2/2014
Perhaps because the range of components and building systems that may or may not be present in a crawlspace is so great, I had not though of making a crawlspace-specific inspection list or topic, though indeed inspectors have strong opinions about the inspection of that area of any building.
I'll make some general suggestions below. If you want to send me examples of what reports & photographs have already been provided for your buildings I can then form a better view of the nature of the construction of the townhomes and thus would have a more specific opinion.
I agree that crawlspace inspection is important: problems tend to develop further and to a more severe extent precisely in building areas that are difficult to access. First: the inspection report must indicate whether or not a crawlspace exists at the building; presuming that one is present beneath each of the 42 units in your case, the report must indicate whether or not the crawlspace was entered and inspected or not. Some conditions such as flooding, unsafe wiring, contamination, or limited safe access space can either limit or even preclude actual entry of a crawl space.
Ultimately the decision to enter or not enter a crawl area must be up to the inspector in the field, as s/he may observe specific safety concerns that would lead the inspector to decline to enter the space. In that case the report must indicate the inspection limitations and if the space was not entered, the report needs to explain why. If I were writing such a report, based on what I could determine about the building and its risk points, I'd have additional recommendations for inaccessible areas. For example where a crawl area is completely inaccessible one needs to decide based on other site and building observations whether or not there are clues suggesting either damage or risk of conditions serious enough to justify destructive or invasive measures to gain view or access to the area. .
Second: for entered crawl spaces surely the scope of inspection will cover all structural and mechanical systems and components that are present therein. For example (this cannot be a complete list as I know nothing of building specifics) the inspector would report
While many inspectors stop the scope of their service at the level of reporting their direct observations (materials, conditions, defects) in my OPINION a true professional will also be sure that you, the client, are given to understand the significance of these findings and are told clearly where there is evidence of unsafe conditions or the need for repairs. For example, water entry in a crawl space can affect the entire building, inviting insect damage, rot, mold contamination, wiring damage, damage to mechanical components, and even moisture problems in other building areas, even in the building's attic.
Watch out: in my OPINION what would not be helpful or particularly useful would be an "inventory checklist" type of inspection report that simply indicates the type of construction and materials. And a limited report that lists observations but gives you no idea of their relative import nor of the need for repairs nor of safety hazards is also of limited value.
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