PHOTO of interior floor covering, pre-vinyl, probably linocrusta with burlap fabric backing, Justin Morrill House, Vermont, ca 1845 - 1900Linoleum Flooring Materials
History, Components, Identification
     


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Linoleum Flooring Materials - History, Components, Identification: this article provides information about linoleum flooring: the history of linoleum, linoleum ingredients, and the properties of linoleum resilient or sheet floor coverings.

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Linoleum Floor Covering Materials: history, ingredients, uses

Congoleum Gold Seal linoleum flooring, Life Magazine 14 Feb 1955Prior to the development of linoleum sheet flooring, floor coverings were made of painted canvas.

[Click to enlarge any image]

Article Series Contents

Inventor & History of Linoleum Flooring & Its Descendants Lincrusta & Anaglypta

Linoleum was invented in 1860 by Frederick Walton and was intended for use first as a ship deck covering (battleship linoleum up to 1/2" thick). Earlier, in the 1700s, non-woven floor coverings were made of oil cloth - heavy canvas coated with wax or oils (for water resistance and durability) that were then painted. Previously, painted oilcloth floor covering was probably the most common non-woven floor covering for nearly two hundred years, or until Walton's linoleum entered production.

Because of its durability and ease of production, Mr. Walton's linoleum quickly found use as a floor coverings in buildings - a much larger application than battleships. Linoleum's appeal rose from its properties as a durable, water-resistant sheet-type floor covering. Glued to a backer of jute or canvas to resist cracks and tears, this flooring has a long history of durability and service.

"Linoleum" was named by Walton from his observation that his original linoleum products were made using linseed oil as an ingredient (linseed oil forms a thick flexible skin when it dries), combined with ground cork dust, pigments, and resins, often with a jute, burlap or canvas fabric backing (see our antique linoleum photos just below).

Descendents of Linoleum include Anaglypta and Lincrusta (many writers spell it "Linocrusta or linacrusta"), an embossed patterned covering used on walls and ceilings. Walton was also the inventor of LINCRUSTA CEILINGS & WALLS, while Thomas Palmer, who had worked for Walton, soon produced a similar but lighter product ANAGLYPTA CEILINGS & WALLS.

Asbestos in "Linoleum"?

According to Rosato, "The original resilient floor coverings were developed during the latter part of the Nineteenth Century by Frederick Walton. The original covering was linoleum for use as a floor decking on British naval ships." Perhaps confusing traditional linoleum formulas that did not contain asbestos with the asphalt-impregnated felt mounted sheet flooring that did, Rosato asserted that ..."the composition of the original linoleum products included asphaltic binders to which an asbestos filler was added by mixing on a rubber mill." This description fits asphalt-saturated felt backed sheet flooring but not traditional or "true" linoleum, as you will read below.

Wilson & Snodgrass, U.S. FPL (2007) note that saturated-felt based linoleum-like flooring appeared in the U.S. as early as 1910, and expanded by Armstrong's Linoflor beginning in 1937. Asphalt-saturated felt-based sheet flooring was less expensive to produce and is [unfortunately] often referred to by the same term - linoleum - even though its constituents are different. We warn below that many asphalt-saturated felts contained asbestos as either a strengthener (in fiber form) or as a filler (in both sheet flooring and asphalt or vinyl based floor tiles).

Those same authors note that cork flooring product names included Kencork, Linotile, and Corkoustic - of which Linotile may have added to the confusion about use of the term linoleum.

Modern Linoleum Products

Linoleum was produced and is still produced today in solid colors, in a wood-grain pattern, in jaspsé (colored streak patterns), in marble-like patterns, in floral designs, in brick patterns, and in both printed geometric and inlaid geometric designs. There are modern linoleum products that still use these traditional (non-asbestos-containing) ingredients, there were asphalt-saturated felt-backed linoleum-like products, and today there are both traditional linoleum and modern non-linoleum lookalike sheet flooring products made of vinyl.

Linoleum, Jaspe pattern, Wilson & Snodgrass, US FPL (2007) Linoleum, traditional sheet flooring  pattern, Wilson & Snodgrass, US FPL (2007)

The "linoleum" photographs shown above illustrate two traditional linoleum floor patterns. Source: Wilson & Snodgrass, U.S. FPL (2007). Below an illustration from the same authors is a beautiful example of a Congoleum "rug" still in use by the US FPL.

See CONGOLEUM-NAIRN FLOORING for more about this company and its floor covering products.

Watch out: But as we explain below, there are also sheet flooring products loosely referred to as linoleum that are adhered to a felt backer and that may contain asbestos in that backing material.

We noted at ASBESTOS FLOOR TILE IDENTIFICATION PHOTOS by YEAR that Linoleum may be used as a generic term for a variety of older sheet floorings (sometimes incorrectly or at least confusingly).

Older sheet flooring products in buildings that do Not Contain Asbestos

Asbestos suspect sheet flooring from Justin Morrill HomesteadHere is a photograph of an early (pre-vinyl) continuous floor covering, ca 1900, in an 1840 historic Vermont house.

Note the fabric backing of the flooring material.

This sheet flooring covering backed with burlap fabric is probably more than a century old. We examined it in an non-public area of the Justin Morrill Homestead, a historic building in Vermont. The material has not been tested for asbestos fibers, but where we see what is obviously a jute backing it's not likely that this sheet flooring product contained asbestos.

The possible origin of this product is discussed at Asphalt & Vinyl Floor Tile History - history, dates, and description of the production process and ingredients in asphalt floor tiles, asphalt-asbestos floor tiles, & vinyl-asbestos floor tiles 1900 to present.

Details about the history of Sheet and Tile Resilient flooring are
at FLOOR TILE HISTORY & INGREDIENTS.

According to Armstrong Flooring[1], in Portugal (no coincidence as you'll read below)

Linoleum is the only floor covering offered on the market that is predominantly made of natural renewable raw materials.

Linoleum is still in modern production (we describe the ingredients in linoleum just below), and it is a very durable product. Armstrong Portugal asserts that "Commercial reference projects laid with Armstrong DLW Linoleum are in use up to 90 years". This age, combined with the observation that because of its constituent products linoleum is biodegradable, gives modern linoleum floor coverings a very low life-cycle cost. [1]

Linoleum's ingredients, both historical and modern

The reader-contributed photographs just below demonstrate Congoleum's Gold Seal™ linoleum in a braided rug design or pattern. [Click to enlarge any image]. Below we list the ingredients found in linoleum floor coverings.

Congoleum Gold Seal Linoleum (C) InspectApedia.com Congoleum Gold Seal Linoleum (C) InspectApedia.com

Because of its solid red color we wondered if this Gold Seal Congoleum product was a rubber-backed flooring product. Help in distinguishing sheet flooring types is
at RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING ID GUIDE and at SHEET FLOORING INSPECT / TEST.

Here are the ingredients in true linoleum:

  • Natural resins: linseed oil (original linoleum), also balsam and copal resins or as a substitute dammar resin. Resins form the binder or "glue" that holds the product together. Linseed oil is made from flax seeds.
  • Jute is used as the flooring backer for strength and dimensional stability. As a kid we called jute "burlap" as it was commonly used also to produce burlap bags. Jute is a natural fabric. We also have found older linoleum floor coverings that used asphalt-impregnated paper ("tar paper" or roofing felt) as a backer.
  • Color pigments are used to form the patterns in the linoleum surface (see our photos here). Armstrong points out that their Armstrong DLW Linoleum, care was given to choice of pigments to protect the "natural" claim for this flooring material. Quoting:

    In the Armstrong DLW Linoleum all the colour pigments are free of lead, cadmium and chrome. The dark colours are produced for the most part with iron oxide pigments, the bright colours with pigments of organic origin. All pigments were examined by a toxicologist and are classified as being physiologically harmless.

    Among other requirements Armstrong DLW Linoleum therefore meets the demands of the toy norm EN71 or better and the various legal requirements for the colouring of consumer goods.
    - [1]

Congoleum "rug" linoleum-type floor covering still in use. Source: Wilson & Snodgrass, US FPL (2007)

  • Cork powder is used in Linoleum to give body to the flooring flexible surface.

    Armstrong uses cork powder waste. Readers familiar with the Iberian peninsula will recognize that cork is a long-standing and important export product from both Spain and Portugal.

The "linoleum" photo at left in rug pattern (notice that the sheet flooring does not extend fully to the room perimeter) illustrates a linoleum "rug". Source: Wilson & Snodgrass, U.S. FPL (2007).

CORK FLOORING also uses ground cork, but in a more coarse form described in that article.

  • Limestone powder is used as a filler in the resilient linoleum floor covering body.

    Really? Pending further research our GUESS is that some early forms of linoleum could have used asbestos powder as a similar filler material, just as asbestos powder was used as a filler in some floor tiles.

    See ASBESTOS FLOOR TILE IDENTIFICATION.
  • Wood powder (see cork above) is also used as a filler and body component of linoleum.

Linoleum "lookalikes" Adhered to Asphalt Felt Underlayment

Identify Older Linoleum Rug or Black-Asphalt-Backed (dark felt underlayment-backed) Sheet Flooring

Linoleum-like floor covering - linoleum rug (C) InspectApedia CW Linoleum-like floor covering - linoleum rug (C) InspectApedia CW

Photos above of saturated felt-backed "linoleum" flooring (installed on a bench top) were provided by reader C.W. In addition to use on floors, linoleum was a popular covering for workbenches and kitchen counters and sink draining areas.

Reader Question: I wanted to seek your advice on the attached images which is some sort of tiling that a previous homeowner put on a work bench as a covering. I looked through your website, but couldn't find a match. Does this look like asbestos tiles to you? If so, any idea on the brand? Thanks in advance! - C.W. 1/17/2014

Reply: forms of "linoleum" may include products glued to felt underlayment vs. glued to a jute backing

Felt backed "linoleum", Wilson-Snodgrass US FPL (2007)Our guide to identifying older types of sheet flooring, including products that may contain asbestos, is found at RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING ID GUIDE. There we describe some simple tests that can often confirm the flooring type and basic materials.

From your photographs (the pair above and second pair given below) showing that the flooring product, now covering a workbench top, has a woven rug -patterned top layer over a black substrate or backer, I would guess that this is an asphalt felt paper-backed sheet flooring product resembling linoleum.

The "linoleum" photo at left in a "marbelized pattern" illustrates a similar example of black felt-backed sheet flooring referred to by some experts as "linoleum". Source: Wilson & Snodgrass, U.S. FPL (2007).

We explain in this article that the ingredients of true linoleum include natural resins, linseed oil, color pigments, cork powder and limestone, with a jute backing. Those products do not contain and never contained asbestos.

But other sheet flooring products loosely called "linoleum" may indeed contain asbestos. The US Forest Products Lab asserts that some forms of "linoleum" were glued to felt underlayment. (US FPL 2007).

The black backing and body of the flooring in your photos looks to me like an asphalt product, though I'd have to see and test a sample to know for certain.

Linoleum-like floor covering - linoleum rug (C) InspectApedia CW Linoleum-like floor covering - linoleum rug (C) InspectApedia CW

Photos above of felt-backed "linoleum" provided by reader C.W.

Watch out: some older felt underlayments and similar asphalt paper products used in flooring, roofing, and wall coverings or building papers contained asbestos. While I'm doubtful that the small quantity of flooring in your photo presents a measurable asbestos hazard (unless some fool grinds or rips it into shreds), it may thus contain asbestos.

If this asphalt-felt backed antique flooring sample were mine I'd preserve it, or a square of it, as it may be historically important. Your second photo of the four (above right) seems to show a plastic or glass cover over this sheet flooring "rug" (as they were called). In that installation the material is protected and most likely completely harmless.

If you decide to dispose of the material as construction debris, I'd be glad to have you cut a pattern square and send it to me for lab examination pro-bono. While we have expertise in asbestos and other material identification in our forensic lab, if you needed an asbestos certification (which in my opinion would be inappropriate for this case) you'd want to use a certified asbestos test lab.

Reader Question: what is this sheet flooring from my home that was built in 1865?

Linoleum sheet flooring (C) InspectApedia L.P. Can you give me an idea of date or asbestos?
House was built 1865.
Several layers.

This one is the last on top of tongue and groove.
Black felt backing. With asphalt type adhesive.

Thank you. - L.P. 6/3/2014

Reply:

LP this looks like a linoleum floor to me.

The spatter pattern was later picked-up and popularized in a similar (not identical) design that appeared in some of the Kentile flooring as its Carnival pattern but those were individual floor tiles, not sheet flooring like yours.

See my warning above about some older felt backing and some flooring adhesives that contain asbestos.

Reader Question: Does this 1930's Linoleum Contain Asbestos?

Linoleum sheet flooring ca 1935 (C) InspectApedia E.P.

05/05/2015 E. wrote:

I am in need of flooring expertise. I have dibs on a large roll of (what the owner believes to be) 1930’s linoleum. (Age is based off of newspapers pulled out of the wall, so dating method isn’t all that scientific.) I am eager to snatch it up – but am concerned about asbestos. The sheet was either never glued to the floor, (or the glue dissipated) allowing it to be rolled up and removed from the house. I realize the only sure way to know is to have it tested – but does this image and the owners description of the back give you any feeling one way or the other? Based on the fact that this is rolled up and the backing is smooth, I would tend to think it’s simply linoleum, but I did see a comment on your site that indicated that some smooth backed sheet flooring could contain asbestos.

Linoleum sheet flooring ca 1935 (C) InspectApedia E.P.

Here's a close up of the back of the linoleum. Somebody dropped a bobby pin on the floor when they laid the linoleum! The linoleum has a hard backing with no loose fibers that I can see. This picture was taken at about 2 inches close.

Ultimately, anything I would use this for would require some cutting, which I am imagine could be done with a utility knife, as the flooring is still somewhat flexible. Based on what I’ve read, asbestos is only a hazard when it’s crumbled, and/or airborn, and cutting can be fairly safe if you get it wet. I certainly don’t want to take it, find out it’s a hazard, and then have to pay again to dispose of it – it’s pretty huge. - E. 5/5/15

Reply:

You're right, it looks like real linoleum. In addition to reviewing this article (above) also see CONGOLEUM-NAIRN FLOOR TILES & LINOLEUM - for more examples.

As we note in the first article, some of these sheet flooring products loosely called "linoleum" may indeed contain asbestos. The US Forest Products Lab asserts that some forms of "linoleum" were glued to felt underlayment. (US FPL 2007), and some felt underlayment contained asbestos. I suspect yours does not, but you're right, you'd need to test a sample.

Keep in mind that if the material is intact and is not ground, sawn, or broken up so as to release debris, even if its backing contains asbestos the airborne levels over an intact floor may be below the limits of detection.

If the cost of the material justifies a lab test - which I recommend - use a certified asbestos test lab and keep me posted on the results. Typical lab tests for asbestos in a material cost about $50.

See ASBESTOS TESTING LAB LIST

Modern Linoleum Floors

Comparing historic linoleum with current products

For the last 50 years or so, linoleum has been used almost exclusively in commercial settings, but it is making a comeback in residential settings, due largely to its use of all-natural ingredients and reputation for durability.

Our photo at below shows antique sheet flooring found in a home built in the 1800's. At below right is a snippet showing modern linoleum patterns from Fobo Linoleum, Inc. (contact information for the company is given below)

Asbestos suspect sheet flooring from Justin Morrill Homestead Forbo marbled linoleum flooring pattern example - www.forbo-flooring.co.uk

Linoleum in its traditional or original formula was and is still made by boiling oil to form a thick cement paste that is mixed with pine rosin, wood flour, and other fillers such as clay or limestone to make a durable, resilient sheet flooring that wears well and resists indentation.

Jute Backing on traditional linoleum

The traditional backing for linoleum sheet flooring was typically jute fabric, a natural fiber. Other than relatively minor initial off-gassing from the linseed oil base, linoleum is considered nontoxic by most healthy-house advocates. It is also naturally antimicrobial and anti static, making it well suited for hospitals, schools, and rooms with electronic equipment. If well maintained, a linoleum floor can provide a 20- to 30-year service life.

Description of contemporary linoleum flooring products

In response to new demand for the product in recent years, manufacturers have responded with a wide variety of solid and marbleized colors and attractive checkered patterns, available in sheet form as well as 19x19-inch tiles that can be mixed to create borders and other designs.

Unlike vinyl, linoleum colors go all the way through the product, making scratches and wear spots less noticeable than on vinyl. Also, scratches, cigarette burns, and other surface wear can be removed with steel wool or a nylon abrasive pad and buffed out.

However, since linoleum does not have a separate wear layer like vinyl flooring and is slightly porous, it requires somewhat more maintenance than vinyl. Applying a sealer or polish to the new floor will help it resist stains and make it easier to clean. Also, portions of a linoleum floor not exposed to light will tend to darken or yellow due to the natural oxidation of the linseed oil base. This coloration will disappear upon exposure to light, and the original linoleum color will be restored, or “bloom.”

Where to Buy Modern Linoleum Flooring & Linoleum Flooring in Historic or Traditional Patterns
(also Rubber or Cork Flooring Alternatives)

Armstrong linoleum floor covering example colors & patterns - www.armstrong.com

Most if not all new linoleum flooring is now manufactured in Europe. Our linoleum sample color & pattern example at left is from the Armstrong Corporation's online linoleum flooring selection catalog. Contact information for Armstrong linoleum flooring products is just below. Some of the linoleum and related cork or rubber flooring product sources listed below were listed by Wilson & Snodgrass - US FPL (2007).

All of the current (2014) Armstrong Corporation linoleum colors and patterns are variations of the pattern type shown here. Older braided rug or facsimile patterns are not currently offered in that company's selection guide.

  • Armstrong Flooring Products also distributes nearly seventy colors & patterns of linoleum flooring. Contact the company at: www.armstrong.com/flooring/linoleum.html for a web page listing a store-finder by U.S. zip code.
    Armstrong World Industries, Inc. Customer Relations and Technical Services P.O. Box 3001 Lancaster, PA 17604, Tel: 1-800-233-3823

  • Expanko, Inc. 1129 West Lincoln Hwy. Coatesville, PA 19320 Phone: 800–345–6202 Web site: http://www.expanko.com (rubber and cork flooring)

  • Flexco, Corp. 1401 East 6th St. Tuscumbia, AL 35674 Phone: 800–633–3151 Web site: http://www.flexcofloors.com/rubber_retro.asp (rubber, retro rubber, & vinyl flooring)
Forbo marbled linoleum flooring pattern example - www.forbo-flooring.co.uk

Image at left: example of Forbo linoleum in marbled pattern from the company's flooring catalog. Contact information for Forbo in North America and in the U.K. is just below.

  • Forbo Linoleum, Inc. - The largest linoleum flooring supplier in the United States is European-based Forbo Linoleum, Inc., Forbo's Flotex sheet flooring (and floor tiles) are available in a wide range of colours and in linear, marbled, solid and other patterns. Forbo also provides cork-linoleum flooring products.

    Forbo Flooring Systems 8 Maplewood Drive Humboldt Industrial Park Hazleton, PA 18202. TEL: United States 1-800-842-7839, Forbo Flooring Systems Canada Office 3220 Orlando Drive Mississauga, ON L4V 1R5, TEL: Canada English: 1-800-268-8108, Francais: 1-800-567-9268, Website: www.forboflooringna.com/ Email: info.na@forbo.com

    Forbo Flooring in the U.K. can be contacted at London EC1 showroom (commercial enquiries only) 79 St John Street, Clerkenwell, London, EC1M 4NR Tel: 0207 553 9300, Residential enquiries: 0800 0935 846 , Website: http://www.forbo-flooring.co.uk
  • Gerbert Limited, 119 South Tree Dr., P.O. Box 4944, Lancaster, PA 17604–4944
    Phone: 800–828–9461, Website: http://www.gerbertltd.com/. Rubber & cork flooring

  • Linoleum City, 5657 Santa Monica Blvd. Hollywood, CA 90038 Phone: 800–559–2489 Web site: http://www.linoleumcity.com/products.htm (Historical patterns of linoleum, rubber, cork, & vinyl flooring)

Nova Cork Plank Flooring examplePhoto at left: Nova cork plank flooring being installed.

  • Nova Distinctive Floors A unique floating linoleum plank floor that can be installed with or without glue is available from Nova Distinctive Floors. Nova also produces cork flooring products, including an interesting Cork-Stone product, and leather flooring products (leather bonded to cork and high density fiber board). Forbo's Marmoleum linoleum flooring is provided in sheets or tiles.

    Nova Distinctive Floors Address: 1710 E Sepulveda Blvd. Address: Carson CA, 90745 Phone: 866-576-2458 Fax: 310-830-9589 E-mail: sales@novafloorings.com Website: novafloorings.com/linoleumfloatingfloors.htm

  • Secondhand Rose, 138 Duane St. New York, NY 10013 Phone: 212–393–9002 Web site: http://www.secondhandrose.com/ (Used or "traditional" Linoleum)

  • Tarkett, Inc. 2728 Summer St. Houston, TX 77007 Phone: 800–877–8453 Web site: http://www.tarkett.com (Traditional or historic linoleum floor patterns, also vinyl flooring)

Readers interested in other natural product resilient floor coverings should also see CORK FLOORING: Natural Alternatives to Vinyl Floors: Installing Cork or Cork Tile Floors.

How to Identify Armstrong, Congoleum, & other Asbestos-Containing Resilient Sheet Flooring

Details about identifying older installations of sheet flooring or sheet-forms of resilient flooring that may contain asbestos are now found at RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING ID GUIDE - live link is given just below.

Armstrong's sheet flooring is described at ARMSTRONG SHEET FLOORING

 

 

Continue reading at CONGOLEUM-NAIRN FLOOR TILES & LINOLEUM or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.

Or see MASTIC, CUTBACK ADHESIVE

Or see RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING ID GUIDE or see SHEET FLOORING INSPECT / TEST

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