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Window & window parts or hardware age:
This article describes and illustrates antique & modern window parts & hardware: hinges, sashes, window latches, hardware, all components or window construction details that can help determine a building's age. Our page top photograph of a window latch was taken by the author (DF) at the 1840's historic Justin Smith Morrill Homestead in Strafford, Vermont.
In this article series we discuss the selection and installation of windows and doors, following best construction and design practices for building lighting and ventilation, with attention to the impact on building heating and cooling costs, indoor air quality, and comfort of occupants.
We review the proper installation details for windows and doors, and we compare the durability of different window and door materials and types.
For centuries, even before glass was used for glazing, windows were framed with wood set into building walls.
Our photo (left) shows an antique wood-framed window in Rugat, Spain (DF).
[Click to enlarge any image]
Earliest wood framed windows were left open (such as this example from Xotolar, Mexico). Later in areas of more hostile climate windows were glazed with animal skins, then parchment, and finally, glass.
For many years, the material choices for "modern" or new residential
windows were limited to wood, clad wood, and aluminum.
Wood and clad wood remain the leading materials, accounting
for almost 50% of the new and replacement window
market. Wood use has been declining, however, with
the rapid growth of solid vinyl windows.
Solid vinyl windows made inroads into the replacement
window market in the mid-1980s; but they were not
widely accepted in new homes until the 1990s, when their
use skyrocketed. Solid vinyl windows now account for an estimated 30%
of the new-home market and 60% of the replacement market.
Aluminum windows account for about 15% of window
sales, with the remaining share of the market spread
among fiberglass windows and a variety of hybrids and
composites that have entered the fray, making window
selection today anything but simple.
Window Latches, Fasteners, Tracks, Window Weights, and Window Components as Indicators of Building Age
At above left is a photograph of an 1840 window latch on a historic landmark property, the Justin Smith Morrill Homestead in Strafford, Vermont. At above right is a photograph of an more modern window latch on the same historic landmark property, the Justin Smith Morrill Homestead in Strafford, Vermont. This window latch is a precursor to the simple, modern window latch.
At below left, a 1940's era knob-operated latch on a casement window on a Buenos Aires apartment. This window latch combines a knob, shaft and gears to extend or retract vertical brass bars that latch a larger casement window found on an apartment in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The more recent window latch at below right is installed on a home in Clinton Hill, Brooklyn, NY. [Date pending, approximately 1935]
also at WINDOW TYPES - Photo Guide we describe windows and doors as clues to building age, including window style, size, placement, construction,
and hardware, as well as door style and hardware.
Window Operators & Handles: Awning & Casement Windows
Question: What is The Proper Name for "Window Cranks" on Casement & Awning Type Windows?
For "Window Latches, Fasteners, Tracks, Window Weights, and Window Components as Indicators of Building Age" section, I would like to offer a photo of window hardware and to ask for the exact name of it. It is grateful if you can help. - Ed. - Hong Kong
Reply: Window Operators & Handles
The photo (above left) you sent in is a window operator crank assembly installed in Hong Kong, referred to in American English by homeowners or inspectors as a "window crank" but if we accept the terminology used by window manufacturers, the assembly is more properly called a "window operator" and the handle is an "operator handle" or "window operator handle".
This common window crank is used on casement windows, awning windows, and some jalousie windows. This window operator design has been in use from (about) 1935 to the present and is ubiquitous.
As you doubtless observed, the assembly combines an internal gear and hinged lever to cause an awning or casement window to open or shut. The window crank in your photo appears to be an older unit, perhaps cast of aluminum or pot metal.
Often we find that the gears on these units are stripped and the crank no longer works. Often the geared (spline) shaft onto which the operator handle mounts has been stripped, or the internal hub of the operator handle that matches with the geared shaft has been stripped internally, usually because the operator was forced when the window was stuck or latched shut.
At left is a similar window crank on a Haddonfield New Jersey home in the U.S. - it ws inoperative and the window had long been painted and caulked shut.
Watch out: making a window non-operational may solve a problem with leaky sashes or damaged window hardware, but the loss of ability to open a window may violate local building ventilation standards and in some locations where a window is also required for use as an emergency exit, sealing it is unsafe as well.
A check with a major manufacturer of windows in the U.S. (Anderson) confirms that that company also refers to the entire assembly as the "window operator" and refers to the "operator handle" when referring only to the part of the control that is grasped and turned by the user and not the entire assembly.
If you intended to ask the specific brand name of the product shown in the photo (above left) we would need to do further research.
Window Construction Details as Indicators of Building Age
Hand-built trim, window stools and sashes seen outside or indoors the presence of window sash details such as through muntins, pegged sashes, single vs double hung, glass type, frame type, window pane size, and window measurements all can form useful clues to the age of a building.
Below we illustrate two window sash construction details that indicate a hand-made window sash: the top or bottom of the sash may show rectangular marks where window muntins (pane dividers) pass completely through the window sash frame in a mortise and tenon construction design using through-mortised tenons.
A list of window features that can help determine its age and thus form a clue to building age includes at least the following:
Number, size and arrangements of window panes (larger glass, later windows). Also of course we may notice sagged or hand-blown glass in some colonial era windows that have been (miraculously) preserved (or reproduced).
Window construction details: sash with through muntins and pegged corners
Window dimensions: on some older homes such as one we renovated built in Wappingers Falls, NY (the "bleachery") we found that no two window frames were exactly the same size - each window frame and its sashes were hand made on-site. Charlie stood in the building framing the window opening and called down to Bill "Hey, make me another window sash, about this big" - holding his hands about two or three feet apart.
Window hardware: latches, pins, pulleys, weights
Window sash support method: pegs, ropes, springs, latches
At below right we see that the window sash corners were secured using wooden pegs.
[Click to enlarge any image]
Below at left our photograph shows this window from the building interior. This is a two-over-two window with a single movable sash, the lower one. The sash would have been supported in its raised position by a manual push-pin or later a spring-loaded pin that moved through the sash side into a hole in the sash track. This window design pre-dates window weights and later sash spring or rope designs.
At above right is a later window sash design that used a pulley, rope, and sash weight to support moveable window sashes. This window and its window rope repair are detailed at WINDOW SASH REPAIR.
(Photos of various window hardware components with age dating details wanted. CONTACT Us)
At above left the windows are protected by wood-framed turnbuckle-secured storm windows that are hung from a simple clip over the window top. These storm windows would have been exchanged seasonally for wood-framed screens installed into the same opening and mounted using the same hardware. Details of these wood framed storm windows are shown below - at an installation at the FDR historic home and estates in Hyde Park, New York.
At above right we see some additional detail: this window was originally also equipped with an awning - that mount to the left and below the turnbuckle held the horizontal arm that supported the lower segment of an awning. We also see that there are multiple layers of paint on these wood surfaces and should assume that lead paint is present.
Where to Buy Windows & Window Parts or Replacement Windows
That window types are often mixed on older buildings is evident in this photograph (left) of a pre-1900 building observed in Hughsonville, New York. We see six-over-six sashes in the upper windows and two-over-two sashes in the lower windows of this dilapidated building.
[Click to enlarge any image]
Andersen Windows and Doors
Vinyl-clad windows and patio doors, including storm resistant
models. Also see Anderson A-Series Casement Windows & Window Parts, web search 01/15/2010, original source: http://www.andersenwindows.com/homeowner/pdfs/A-Series_Casement.pdf
Atrium Companies Inc.
Vinyl and aluminum windows and patio doors
Vinyl windows and patio doors
Crestline Windows and Doors
Wood, vinyl, and aluminum-clad windows and
Eagle Windows and Doors
Extruded-aluminum-clad windows and sliders with LVL
frames and steel entry doors
Fibertec Windows and Door Manufacturing
Pultruded fiberglass windows and doors
Hurd Windows and Doors
Wood, vinyl, and aluminum clad windows and
Jeld-Wen Windows and Doors
Wood, vinyl, aluminum-clad, and aluminum windows
and patio doors
Kolbe Windows and Doors
Wood, vinyl, and aluminum-clad windows and
Marvin Window and Doors
Wood and extruded-aluminum-clad windows and patio
doors, including true divided lites and storm-resistant
Milgard Windows and Doors
Wood, aluminum, vinyl, and fiberglass-clad windows
and patio doors
Wood, vinyl, and vinyl-clad windows and patio doors
Peachtree Doors and Windows
Vinyl-clad and aluminum-clad windows with optional
hardwood interior; aluminum-clad, steel, and fiberglass
patio doors with optional hardwood interior
Pella Windows and Doors
Wood and aluminum-clad windows and patio doors with
optional between-the-glass shades and blinds, including
Thermotech Windows Ltd.
Complete line of fiberglass pultruded windows
Weather Shield Windows and Doors
Wood, vinyl, vinyl-clad, and aluminum-clad windows and
patio doors, including historic replacement windows and
WindsorWindows and Doors
Wood and vinyl windows and patio doors, including a line
of wood windows with a cellular-PVC exterior
Continue reading at DOOR HARDWARE AGE or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
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American Plywood Association, APA, "Portland Manufacturing Company, No. 1, a series of monographs on the history of plywood manufacturing",Plywood Pioneers Association, 31 March, 1967, www.apawood.org
"An Example of Colonial Paneling", Norman Morrison Isham, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 5 (May, 1911), pp. 112-116, available by JSTOR.
Pergo AB, division of Perstorp AB, is a Swedish manufacturer or modern laminate flooring products. Information about the U.S. company can be found at http://www.pergo.com where we obtained historical data used in our discussion of the age of flooring materials in buildings.
Plank House Construction: weblog from plankhouse.wordpress.com/2009/01/25/plank-house-construction/ and where plank houses were built by native Americans, see
Large 1:6 Scale Plank House Construction / P8094228,
Photographer: Mike Meuser
06/12/2007 documented at yurokplankhouse.com where scale model Museum quality Yurok Plank Houses are being sold to raise money for the Blue Creek - Ah Pah Traditional Yurok Village project.
The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair and railing portion of the International Residential Code. [copy on file as http://www.stairways.org/pdf/2006%20Stair%20IRC%20SCREEN.pdf ] -
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
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