Oil burner filters: here we explain the installation, use, maintenance, and repair of oil filters used on oil-fired boilers, furnaces, and water heaters. We discuss tracking down air and oil leaks at or near the oil filter canister and we describe proper oil filter location and problems to check for during oil filter cartridge changes.
We include considerations of oil pipe leaks out (fuel oil leaks), oil piping leaks in (air in the system), clogged, damaged, noisy, or mis-routed fuel oil piping, and oil fill and vent piping size and location requirements. We also discuss the need for and location for heating oil or fuel oil filters and safety valves.
Green links show where you are. © Copyright 2015 InspectApedia.com, All Rights Reserved.
At OIL FILTERS on HEATING EQUIPMENT we described changing the oil filter as part of oil burner maintenance. And there we warned about leaks in piping fittings at the burner and at the oil filter canister assembly. Here are the details.
Our photo at left shows a pretty severe oil line leak that seems to be coming from the oil safety valve just ahead of the oil filter. We discuss this leak in detail
[Click to enlarge any image]
At below left we illustrate a dripping heating oil leak below the connection to the filter outlet? This leak will suck air into the oil burner when it's running, leading to improper and possibly unsafe operation, risking a puffback.
After any service procedure that disturbs oil line, filter, or burner oil piping fittings we recommend checking for evidence of oil leaks again after the system has been in use for a day or so, because slow leaks and small leaks in the oil piping system may not show up immediately.
Oil piping leak at the copper piping flare to iron piping connection.
As we explained earlier, oil leaks anywhere in the oil piping and filter system may be hazardous. That's because even though the absolute amount of oil that drips out may be trivial, an oil leak out is an air leak in to the oil piping system as well.
Air may be drawn into the oil line when the fuel unit is pumping leading to improper oil burner operation, a dangerous puff-back, or loss of heat in the building.
Where Do We Usually Find Leaks at the Heating Oil Filter Canister Assembly?
Here are more illustrations of places where we often find leaks at heating oil filters: at the canister air bleed screw (not tightened, stripped threads, or failure to install a fresh gasket), at the canister top center bolt (same), and at the joint between the oil filter canister lid and base.
The oil filter assembly shown in the photos below was in deed leaking. But it took a bit of work to find out exactly where the problem was. Because oil flows from a leak anywhere on the canister top down the canister sides, you can be fooled about exactly where the heating oil leak is occurring. That's why an expert cleans and dries all of the surfaces meticulously. That makes watching for leaks easy.
We examined the connections at the inlet side of the oil canister, the flare itself and the IPT threaded fitting entering the canister lid (above left). We examined the filter mounting bolt at the center of the canister lid (above right).
Other tricks for finding an oil leak include using tracer powders on the cleaned surface, pressure tests, and even a paper towel on the floor below suspected drip points.
Next we examined the air bleed screw (below left) - ultimately we found both the center top bolt loose and the air bleed screw loose - the heating service tech had just forgotten to check & tighten them.
At above right we indicate where you will often find wet heating oil - in the gap between the canister lid and canister base. But this is a confusing "wet oil" location. It could be wet in this spot for the following reasons:
Below at Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQs) about Heating Oil Filters on Boilers, Furnaces, Water Heaters we describe these oil filter leak points and how they occur in still more detail..
Where & Why Leaks Occur at Heating Oil Filters - & How to Fix Heating Oil Filter Leaks
Watch out: leaks in heating oil appliance piping or filters can be much more serious than just a drip spot on the floor. The same leak that allows oil to drip out of the oil filter or piping connections allows air to be drawn into the system when the oil fuel unit (oil pump for the water heater, oil fired boiler or furnace) is running.
That air leak into the system results in improper oil burner operation, soot clogging, and even a loud bang at oil burner start-up or worse, a dangerous puffback. Detailed explanation of why an oil line leak causes a bang or puffback at the oil burner, and loss of heat is
Reader Question: Why is my oil filter canister leaking oil - apparently from the bottom of the unit?
I recently replaced my oil filter (I actually replaced the entire oil canister with a new oil canister that included the filter already inside of it). The burner is working properly, the flame is on,and I'm getting hot water.
The problem is that I seem to have a small/minor leak from the oil canister itself. Oil is dripping from the canister (I think it's leaking from the bottom of the canister). I've checked all the fittings to make sure they're not loose. They're all tight, as are all the connections in and out of the oil canister.
Do you know why the oil canister could be leaking? Was I supposed to tighten the bolt/screw that's on the bottom of the canister (underneath the filter) as well? I assumed the oil canister came ready to install and that I wouldn't have to adjust the top or bottom bolts on the canister.
Any idea why the oil canister is leaking oil (from the bottom)? - Thanks, Ed Salva
Thanks to Mr. Salva for the Mitco oil filter canister photo (above left). Mr. Salva's photo illustrates an important detail: place a suitable container below the oil filter canister to catch any spills before you attempt to service the unit.
Reply: Check for missing or damaged fiber washers and o-ring as well as leaky flare fittings
The oil filter canister is installed with a bolt that goes down through the red top and taps into threads in the bottom of the canister.
In our photo (left) my pencil points to the top bolt that secures the oil filter canister base to the top.
There are two seals: a (usually red) fiber washer that mounts under the bolt head and an O-ring seal between the lip of the canister and its top.
There is also a tiny fiber washer underneath a small air bleeder screw found on the top of the oil filter canister.
Above at Bleeding Air from the Heating Oil Filter Canister you can see a closeup of this oil filter air bleed outlet on another oil filter canister brand, and there you'll see the fiber washer too.
If any of those three seals were omitted or damaged, that would make an oil leak that might begin at the edges of the canister or even its top but then run down the device and appear to be dripping off its bottom.
Tightening the bolt won't fix it.
Where to leaks occur at heating oil filter canister assemblies?
Another common leak point at oil filter cartridges is the joint between the oil filter canister base and the red oil filter assembly top. If a hasty service tech (or you) forgot to tighten the top bolt the result will be an oil leak and improper oil burner operation. Common leak points at or close to a heating oil filter assembly include:
Leaks between the canister base top edge and the canister top, due to an old, faulty, gasket or due to a loose assembly top bolt
Leaks at the oil filter air bleeder screw due to a faulty or missing gasket or due to a loose bleeder screw
Leaks at the oil filter fittings entering and leaving the canister assembly, particularly at flare fittings that may have been wiggled and jiggled around by a heavy-handed service person who used just one wrench to loosen or tighten the top bolt. Use two wrenches, one on the bolt and one on the rectangular inlet or outlet casting to avoid twisting oil piping and causing still more oil piping leaks.
If you never have opened the oil filter canister, I'd shut off oil at the fire-o-matic valve between canister and oil tank, turn off the oil burner of course, and open the canister - to be sure it contains a filter and to be sure that all of the gaskets and o-rings are in place and un-damaged.
At OIL TANK PIPING & PIPING DEFECTS you'll find more about oil piping and filter leaks, photos, and suggestions.
In the article above (at OIL FILTERS on HEATING EQUIPMENT) you will see photos of the filter canister type I'm discussing.
Send me a photo of your filter/canister as it may be a different brand or model than what I describe above.
Continued from Ed:
Thanks for the quick response. I have to say that this website has a TON of valuable information!
I'm at work now but when I get home I'll try to attach a picture of the oil filter. It actually looks very similar to the one in the picture on this website (the picture under "HEATING OIL FILTER - NONE - No Oil Filter Installed on Oil Fired Equipment"). The silver one.
I replace the filter yearly on my burner. This year, I decided to change the whole canister as I felt it needed to be changed (it's the original canister that was installed 8 years ago). Then I ran into the problem of oil leaking from the oil canister.
When I first replaced the oil canister a couple of days ago, that's when I noticed the oil leak. I thought immediately that I had bought a defective oil canister. So I decided to take it apart. Surprisingly, everything in the canister was intact (filter, o-ring, etc). Then I went back to the hardware store and purchased ANOTHER oil canister and installed this new one. Same problem, oil leak from bottom of oil canister.
That's when I started researching and came across this site and posted my question.
Can the nozzle have anything to do with this leak? It's not a major leak, just a few ounces per day. Nonetheless, any oil leak is not good and I want to stop the leakage if I can on my own.
When I got home last night, I took some pictures of the oil canister.
Continued from DF:
Ed mail photos using the CONTACT link found at top, left, or bottom of our web article pages.
I agree with taking care not to strip threads. Using a sealant can help avoid trying to fix a leak just by tightening. Also FYI iron pipe threaded fittings are tapered so that the fitting gets tighter as it is turned inwards.
But that means that every time you disassemble and re-use a fitting it has to be turned in further than before to get tight. In turn that means on some devices a fitting can bottom out or reach end of threads without being satisfactorily tight. That's why plumbers often will not re-use brass-to-steel fittings such as the adapter on your filter canister inlet and outlet sides. If you disassemble and reassemble, it's cheap to use a new fitting plus leak-lok.
If your heating appliance fuel is LP gas or natural gas,
Tips for the Follow-Up Check for Oil Leaks at the Heating Oil Filter
After heating oil burner service of any sort we recommend checking for evidence of oil leaks again after the system has been in use for a day or so. Slow leaks and small leaks in the oil piping system may not show up immediately.
Clean the floor beneath and around the heating oil filter and oil piping. Check back in a day or two for fresh heating oil spots on the floor (below left).
If you leave a clean paper towel below the oil filter and connectors it can make spotting an oil drip easier.
Also remain alert for signs of oil burner operating problems like new or unusual noises, sooting, or smoky operation
While there is a variety of causes of improper oil burner operation, leaks in the oil piping are among them.
Fix any oil leaks immediately. An air leak into the oil piping system leads to improper oil burner operation, risking a dangerous puff-back, or loss of heat in the building.
Continue reading at OIL FILTER CHANGE STEPS or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
Suggested citation for this web page
Green link shows where you are in this article series.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
No FAQs have been posted for this page. Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.
Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
Search the InspectApedia website
HTML Comment Box is loading comments...
Technical Reviewers & References