Nanotechnology & Carbon Nanotube-containing materials & IAQ Hazards
- NANOMATERIALS HAZARDS - CONTENTS: What are Some Possible Nanotechnology, Carbon Nanotubes & Environmental Hazards?Articles on nanotechnology environmental hazards, research, studies. Possible hazards of ultra-small particles in indoor air or water or nanotechnology research chemical hazards.Comparison of nanotube exposure to asbestos exposure
- PARTICLE SIZES & IAQ - separate article
- POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about nanomaterials as possible concerns in buildings and the indoor environment
Nanomaterials hazard investigation & management: this document discusses possible health & environmental concerns associated with nanotechnology and the production of products that may release ultra-fine particles such as carbon nanotubes produced by nanotechnology operations & research.
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What Are Current Estimates of Health Risks from Carbon Nanotube Particle Exposure?
Here we report on studies of possible health risks from products or processes involving carbon nanotubes both in the general environment and in the occupational, industrial, or research laboratory environment. Page top image of a carbon nanotube structure: Wikipedia . Also see AIRBORNE PARTICLE ANALYSIS METHODS and PARTICLE SIZES & IAQ.
What are Carbon Nanotubes?
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cylindrical structures (tubes) of carbon allotropes whose tube diameter is just one to a few nanometers wide (for single-walled nanotubes or SNWT). For a point of size contrast, a human hair is typically 20-50 microns in diameter. A 1-nanometer in diameter carbon nanotube is about - about 1/20,000 to 1/50,000 the thickness of a typical human hair. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) (multiple layers or concentric single-walled nanotubes) are also produced that have greater resistance to chemicals.
According to solid-state physicist Wolfgang S. Bacsa, Russian LV Radushkevich and collaborators reported about carbon nanotubes as early as 1952. M Endo from Japan, collaborating with A Oberlin in France, reported on the observation of carbon nanotubes by electron microscopy in 1976. A more contemporary and key researcher too-often credited with the "discovery" of carbon nanotubes was Suomo Iijima, a Japanese scientist working at NEC in 1991.
Because carbon nanotubes can be produced in very long lengths and because they can be assembled into strong, chemically-resistant structures with useful electrical properties, they may be used for a variety of uses including medical, electronic, and other industrial applications.
What are Nanomaterials?
Individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) or multi-wall carbon nanotubes can be assembled into more complex materials. The individual nanotubes measure in nanometers of height and width. Carbon nanotubes may be assembled into larger structures for various purposes.
In 2012 the New York Times reported on rising concern for the need for better research into potential risks associated with nanomaterials - extremely small particles of a variety of substances, typically metals such as silver, carbon, zinc, or aluminum have been used to add desirable properties to products (such as cosmetics, clothing, and paint) that have reached the marketplace in the decade beginning in 2002.
The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has convened a panel of experts to research potential risks associated with nanomaterials. The Times elaborated that the panel has called for research in four areas [paraphrasing]:
- Identification of sources of release of nanomaterials into the environment
- Processes that affect exposure to nanomaterials and related hazards
- The interactions of nanomaterials at subcellular all the way to ecosystem-wide levels
- Ways to acclerate the progress of nanomaterials risk assessment research
CEINT, the Center for Environmental Implications of Nano Technology, hosted at Duke University, explores "the relationship between a vast array of nanomaterials— from natural, to manufactured, to those produced incidentally by human activities— and their potential environmental exposure, biological effects, and ecological impacts.". 
General Environmental Exposure to Carbon Nanotube Materials
Presently (May 2010) a partial review of the literature suggests that the probability of exposure to carbon nanotube materials [CNM] in the general environment is very low, but there is a potential exposure in research and industrial environments where these materials are used, studied, or produced.
Detection of Carbon Nanotube Materials in the Environment
Typically carbon nanotube material (CNM) particles likely to be detected in an environment where they are produced or studied are larger than a single nanotube diameter. Carbon nanotube particles that may be released during production or laboratory studies are about 0.3 microns in size.
Carbon nanotube particles in this 0.3um size range are well under the one-micron size that is commonly the smallest particle easily detected by optical light microscopy used in most forensic laboratories. Transmission electron (TEM) microscopy, SEM microscopy, or similar methods must be employed to detect these particles.
Reports of Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Carbon Nanotube Materials
Comparing Carbon Nanotube Material Particles to Asbestos Particles
Asbestos particles in air are typically 0.7 microns to 70 microns in size, primarily depending on fiber length and whether or not the particles are comprised of clusters of fibers or individual fibers. See ASBESTOS FLOOR TILE LAB PROCEDURES for photos of asbestos particles and fibers.
Carbon nanotube particles may be as small as a single nanometer in size but of considerable length, possibly similar in that regard to small asbestos fibers.
Because a component of the airborne asbestos fiber hazard is the inhalation of very small inorganic fibers into the lung where they may over time cause lung disease, or mesothelioma (a rare cancer caused almost exclusively by exposure to asbestos fibers that are inhaled or ingested into the body), it is natural to ask the question of whether or not carbon nanotube particles in the environment, or in the occupational environment might pose similar hazards.
Also, as we report below, an occupational exposure to chemicals used in the fabrication or study of carbon nanotube materials may also be a hazard.
In 2008 the New York Times reported that to date no illnesses have been reported concerning nanotube-containing articles and that current popular consumer products such as tennis rackets that contain nanotubes are of little risk to consumers. But because nanotube-based fibers are very small, they could pose a health risk. 
Consumer caution (not fear) are advised. Carbon nanotubes include bundles of fibers that are similar to but more uniform than naturally-occurring asbestos fibers, as reported on an article published at the website of the journal Nature Nanotechnology that appeared on 5/21/08.
Another article published at by the same journal stated: "The toxicity of carbon nanotubes is the subject of ongoing debate. A preliminary study using a small number of mice shows that they may be safe, but the results should be treated with caution." The article also indicated an urgent need for a framework for to assessment of risks of carbon nanotubes on human health for methods of reliable risk assessment of nanotube materials.
As we learned from the history of asbestos-related illness and mesothelioma, the greatest risk, if one is ultimately demonstrated at all for nanotube materials, will probably be for people employed in factories producing carbon nanotube materials. See Nature Nanotechnology at references below.
In fact, nanotube technology is being investigated in the health field as a possible medical procedure to fight cancer. Another nanotechnology research article summarized that "single-walled carbon nanotubes can now effectively target tumors in mice, which suggests that nanotubes could form the basis of a safe drug-delivery system for cancer [treatment]".
In 2008, in a letter published in Nature Nanotechnology, Poland et als reported that "Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos-like pathogenicity in a pilot study".Quoting from the abstract of that article,
Carbon nanotubes have distinctive characteristics, but their needle-like fibre shape has been compared to asbestos, raising concerns that widespread use of carbon nanotubes may lead to mesothelioma, cancer of the lining of the lungs caused by exposure to asbestos. Here we show that exposing the mesothelial lining of the body cavity of mice, as a surrogate for the mesothelial lining of the chest cavity, to long multiwalled carbon nanotubes results in asbestos-like, length-dependent, pathogenic behaviour. This includes inflammation and the formation of lesions known as granulomas. This is of considerable importance, because research and business communities continue to invest heavily in carbon nanotubes for a wide range of products5 under the assumption that they are no more hazardous than graphite. Our results suggest the need for further research and great caution before introducing such products into the market if long-term harm is to be avoided. .
Risk of Potential Exposure to Nanotechnology, & Carbon Nanotube Particles or Process-related Chemicals
The potential for occupational exposure to engineered carbon-based nanomaterials in environmental laboratory studies was examined by David Johnson et als and reported in Environmental Health Perspectives in January 2010. The study concluded that
Engineered nanomaterials can become airborne when mixed in solution by sonication, especially when nanomaterials are functionalized or in water containing NOM. This finding indicates that laboratory workers may be at increased risk of exposure to engineered nanomaterials.
AIHA's The Synergist reported (May 2010) that in concert with the NIOSH Prevention through Design (PtD) green jobs (making jobs environmentally safe for workers who labor in the "green"-tagged industries). In the nanotechnology research and industrial field, hazards to workers appeared to be focused on "chemicals" used in research.
The emerging science of nanotechnology demonstrates the urgency for effective PtD design interventions that integrate OHS [Occupational Health & Safety] and environmental goals.
The article's authors, Heidel, et als, point out that while nanotechnology research has been conducted at Purdue University for many years, when the university was planning the Birk Nanotechnology Center (BNC) in West Lafayette, IN, a new state-of-the-art nanotechnology research facility for nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine, the facility design had to include steps to protect the safety and health of the workers as well as the surrounding community.
Safety measures designed to address potential hazards of chemical spills (a drop-down exhaust system) were included in the facility planning and design of the Birk Nanotechnology Center (BNC). Potential hazards associated with the production of ultra-small particles produced by some nanotechnology research or production were not cited in this magazine article.
Nanotechnology Guidance led by NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health
NIOSH reports via an upcoming conference on "Nanomaterials and Worker Health" (July 2010) its role in leading research on nanotechnology hazards and worker safety. Quoting from that document:
NIOSH is the leading federal agency conducting research and providing guidance on the occupational safety and health implications and applications of nanotechnology.
This research focuses NIOSH's scientific expertise, and its efforts, on answering the questions that are essential to understanding these implications and applications:
- How might workers be exposed to nano-sized particles in the manufacturing or industrial use of nanomaterials?
- How do nanoparticles interact with the body’s systems?
- What effects might nanoparticles have on the body’s systems?
As observers generally agree, research to answer these questions is critical for maintaining U.S. competitiveness in the growing and dynamic nanotechnology market.
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Technical Reviewers & References
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-  "With Prevalence of Nanomaterials Rising, Panel Urges Review of Risks", Cornelia Dean, The New York Times, P. A16, 26 January 2012
-  Carbon Nanotube Science
Synthesis, Properties and Applications,
Peter J. F. Harris,
University of Reading , ISBN-13: 9780521828956 - quoting from
Carbon nanotubes represent one of the most exciting research areas in modern science. These molecular-scale carbon tubes are the stiffest and strongest fibres known, with remarkable electronic properties, and potential applications in a wide range of fields. Carbon Nanotube Science is the most concise, accessible book for the field, presenting the basic knowledge that graduates and researchers need to know. Based on the successful Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures, this new book focuses solely on carbon nanotubes, covering the major advances made in recent years in this rapidly developing field. Chapters focus on electronic properties, chemical and bimolecular functionalisation, nanotube composites and nanotube-based probes and sensors. The book begins with a comprehensive discussion of synthesis, purification and processing methods. With its full coverage of the state-of-the-art in this active research field, this book will appeal to researchers in a broad range of disciplines, including nanotechnology, engineering, materials science and physics.
-  "In Study, Researchers Find Nanotubes May Pose Health Risks Similar to Asbestos", New York Times 21 May 2008 p. A-22, reported on an article published at the website of the journal Nature Nanotechnology on 5/21/08.
-  "Nanotoxicology: Are carbon nanotubes safe?", Yuliang Zhao, Gengmei Xing, Zhifang Chai, Nature Nanotechnology 3, 191 - 192, 01 Apr 2008
-  "Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology tackles tumours", Yuanfang Liu, Haifang Wang, Nature Nanotechnology 2, 20 - 21 (01 Jan 2007) See www.nature.com for access to these articles.
-  "All Systems Green - PtD (NIOSH Prevention through Design) and Nanotechnology", Donna S. Heidel, James D. McGlothlin, John Weaver, The Synergist, may 2010 -. 41-42. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2700 Prosperity Ave. Suite 250, Fairfax VA 22031, 703-849-8888 email: email@example.com
-  Johnson DR, Methner MM, Kennedy AJ, Steevens JA 2010. Potential for Occupational Exposure to Engineered Carbon-Based Nanomaterials in Environmental Laboratory Studies. Environ Health Perspect 118:49-54. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901076,
118(1) Jan 2010
D.R. Johnson, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, 3909 Halls Ferry Rd., Building 6011, Vicksburg, MS 39180 USA. Telephone: (601) 634-2910. Fax: (601) 634-2263. E-mail: email: David.R.Johnson@usace.army.mil - original source Web Search 5/8/2010] [Local copy link above. Original: see
URI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.0901076 ] - Quoting this article's abstract:
Background: The potential exists for laboratory personnel to be exposed to engineered carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) in studies aimed at producing conditions similar to those found in natural surface waters [e.g., presence of natural organic matter (NOM)].
Objective: The goal of this preliminary investigation was to assess the release of CNMs into the laboratory atmosphere during handling and sonication into environmentally relevant matrices.
Methods: We measured fullerenes (C60), underivatized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (raw MWCNT), hydroxylated MWCNT (MWCNT-OH), and carbon black (CB) in air as the nanomaterials were weighed, transferred to beakers filled with reconstituted freshwater, and sonicated in deionized water and reconstituted freshwater with and without NOM. Airborne nanomaterials emitted during processing were quantified using two hand-held particle counters that measure total particle number concentration per volume of air within the nanometer range (10–1,000 nm) and six specific size ranges (300–10,000 nm). Particle size and morphology were determined by transmission electron microscopy of air sample filters.
Discussion: After correcting for background particle number concentrations, it was evident that increases in airborne particle number concentrations occurred for each nanomaterial except CB during weighing, with airborne particle number concentrations inversely related to particle size. Sonicating nanomaterial-spiked water resulted in increased airborne nanomaterials, most notably for MWCNT-OH in water with NOM and for CB.
Conclusion: Engineered nanomaterials can become airborne when mixed in solution by sonication, especially when nanomaterials are functionalized or in water containing NOM. This finding indicates that laboratory workers may be at increased risk of exposure to engineered nanomaterials.
Quoting the Editor's Summary regarding this article
Many laboratories are conducting research on engineered carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) in environmentally relevant systems, but laboratory exposures during procedures used in this research have not been systematically evaluated. Johnson et al. (p. 49) measured the release of fullerenes (C60), underivatized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (raw MWCNT), hydroxylated MWCNT (MWCNT-OH), and carbon black (CB) into air as nanomaterials were weighed, suspended, and sonicated in water with and without natural organic matter (NOM; a natural surfactant used to simulate environmentally relevant matrices). Airborne particle number concentrations in the nanometer range (10–1,000 nm) and six specific size ranges (300–10,000 nm) were measured using two hand-held particle counters, and transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the size and morphology of particles collected on air sample filters. The authors report that airborne particle number concentrations increased during weighing for each nanomaterial except CB, and increased during sonication, particularly when CB and MWCNT-OH were sonicated in water with NOM. Additional research is needed to fully characterize CNM releases, but the authors recommend the use of appropriate protective equipment and engineering controls to minimize exposures, including exposures to CNMs that may be released from liquid suspensions.
-  Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published by the National Institute of Environmental Health Science,
-  Nature Nanotechnology on April 4 ahead of publication, discovered that carbon nanotubes were biodegraded by an enzyme found in white blood cells, neutrophils. The results are important for scientists in evaluating the biological effects of carbon nanotubes, particularly their fate and role in inflammation. The paper is available at http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nnano.2010.44.html
-  "Workshop on Risk Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials in a Regulatory Context." see http://www.oecd.org/LongAbstract/0,3425,en_2649_37015404_45020877_1_1_1_1,00.html
-  "Nanomaterials and Worker Health", Keystone Conference Center, July 21-23 2010, Nanotechnology at NIOSH, original source: see http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/nanotech/
-  NIOSH Articles Address Nanomaterial Exposure Issues, cited at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/nanotech/, 5/8/2010,
Three new peer-reviewed articles co-authored by NIOSH researchers report findings and conclusions from studies that examined issues related to potential occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.
Two articles in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene report on the design and application of the nanomaterial emission assessment technique, or NEAT, which was developed by the NIOSH nanotechnology field evaluation team.
Part A describes the technique. (Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 7: 127-132)
Part B discusses findings from use of the technique at 12 facilities.
(Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 7: 163-176
The third article, highlighted as a "featured research" paper in Environmental Health Perspectives, examines the potential for occupational exposure to engineered carbon-based nanomaterials in environmental laboratory studies. The article is posted online at http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.0901076. A commentary on the article is posted at http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.118-a34b
-  Prevention through Design NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) initative resources: Original source: www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ptd
- "Prevention through Design, Program Description", Centers for Disease Control, CDC, www.cdc.gov/niosh/programs/PtDesign/ -
Quoting from that material:
One of the best ways to prevent occupational injuries, illnesses, and fatalities is to eliminate hazards and minimize risks early in the design or re-design process and incorporate methods of safe design into all phases of hazard and risk mitigation. Although a long history of designing for safety for the general public exists in the U.S., less attention has gone to factoring the safety, health and well-being of workers into the design, re-design and retrofit of new and existing workplaces, tools and equipment, and work processes. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) currently leads a nationwide initiative called Prevention through Design (PtD). PtD addresses occupational safety and health needs by eliminating hazards and minimizing risks to workers throughout the life cycle of work premises, tools, equipment, machinery, substances, and work processes including their construction, manufacture, use, maintenance, and ultimate disposal or re-use. A growing number of business leaders recognize PtD as a cost-effective means to enhance occupational safety and health. Many U.S. companies openly support PtD concepts and have developed management practices to implement them.
The persistence in the U.S. of a large occupational morbidity, mortality, and injury burden demonstrates the need for a more concerted effort to reduce workplace risks than has been attempted in the past. The strategic plan outlined in this document establishes goals for the successful implementation of the
PtD Plan for the National Initiative
. This comprehensive approach, which includes worker health and safety in all aspects of design, redesign and retrofit, will provide a vital framework for saving lives and preventing work-related injuries and illnesses.
-  "Who discovered carbon nanotubes? - All you need to know about the discovery of carbon nanotubes", Wolfgang S. Bacsa, Ph.D., Professor at the Solid State Physics Laboratory at the Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. - Web Search 05/09/2010
Details about the discovery of carbon nanotubes can be found in CARBON 44 (2006) 1621.
Radushkevich L.V., Lukyanovich V.M., Zurn Fisic Chim 1952; 111:24
Oberlin A., Endo M., Koyama T. Filamentous growth of carbon through benzene decomposition, J Cryst Growth 1976; 32: 335
Ijima S., Helical microtubules of graphite carbon, Nature 1991; 354: 56
Ijima S., Ichihashi T. Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter, Nature 1993; 363: 603
Bethune D.S. et al. Cobalt catalysed growth of carbon nanotubes with single atomic layer walls, Nature 1993; 363: 605
-  Wikipedia, Carbon Nanotube entry, web search 05/09/2010 - source of page top image in this document.
-  "Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos-like pathogenicity in a pilot study",
Craig A. Poland, Rodger Duffin, Ian Kinloch, Andrew Maynard, William A. H. Wallace, Anthony Seaton, Vicki Stone, Simon Brown, William MacNee & Ken Donaldson, letter, nature nanotechnology, npg (nature publishing group), 75 Varick Street, 9th Floor
New York NY 10013-1917
T: +1 212 726 9200, a division of Macmillian Publishers Ltd., web search 01/26/2012, original source: nature.com/nnano/journal/v3/n7/full/nnano.2008.111.html
-  CEINT, the Center for Environmental Implications of Nano Technology, P.O. Box 90287, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0287 +1 919 660 5221 Website: ceint.duke.edu/
- Lab procedures: Airborne Particle Trace Calculations Recap - how to calculate airborne particle concentrations for mold, IAQ, allergens, or other forensic particle studies - A Laboratory SOP
- Lab procedures: Calibration and Mold Test Laboratory SOP documents?
- Lab procedures: Cargille meltmountTM slides for rapid field or laboratory use, how to prepare
- Lab procedures: Microscopy - Microscope techniques and laboratory procedures for indoor air quality, toxic mold identification, & bioaerosol investigations
- Lab procedures: Slide preparation - tips on mold lab procedures?
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
- Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. Also see our Book Reviews - InspectAPedia.
- Environmental Health & Investigation Bibliography - our technical library on indoor air quality inspection, testing, laboratory procedures, forensic microscopy, etc.
Allergies, Allergens, Allergy Testing in Buildings - References & Products
- Air Conditioning System Blower Fans & Filters Cascading for Optimum Indoor Air Quality
- Allergen Tests in Buildings advice about how to test, what to look for, in evaluating the level of dog, cat, or other animal allergens in a building
- "IgG Food Allergy Testing by ELISA/EIA, What do they really tell us?" Sheryl B. Miller, MT (ASCP), PhD, Clinical Laboratory Director, Bastyr University Natural Health Clinic - ELISA testing accuracy: Here is an example of Miller's critique of ELISA
http://www.betterhealthusa.com/public/282.cfm - Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients
The critique included in that article raises compelling questions about IgG testing assays, which prompts our interest in actually screening for the presence of high levels of particles that could carry allergens - dog dander or cat dander in the case at hand.
http://www.tldp.com/issue/174/IgG%20Food%20Allergy.html contains similar criticism in another venue but interestingly by the same author, Sheryl Miller. Sheryl Miller, MT (ASCP), PhD, is an Immunologist and Associate Professor of Basic and Medical Sciences at Bastyr University in Bothell, Washington. She is also the Laboratory Director of the Bastyr Natural Health Clinic Laboratory.
- Allergens: Testing for the level of exposure to animal allergens is discussed at http://www.animalhealthchannel.com/animalallergy/diagnosis.shtml (lab animal exposure study is interesting because it involves a higher exposure level in some cases
- Allergens: WebMD discusses allergy tests for humans at webmd.com/allergies/allergy-tests
- Animal Allergens: Dog, Cat, and Other Animal Dander - Cleanup & Prevention Information for Asthmatics and regarding Indoor Air Quality.
- Atlas of Mold Related Illness Symptoms & Complaints - long list of both documented, studied mold related illness, and complaints ascribed to mold contamination or allergens in buildings
- Cat Dander: how to inspect and test a building for past or current presence of cats, cat hair, cat dander, and cat allergens
- Clinical Atlas of Mold Toxicity - An Online Description of Toxic, Pathogenic, Allergenic Fungi, Fungal Diseases
- Fiberglass Insulation Contains Mold© 2005 comments about a field study in process, & more about health hazards from fiberglass insulation
- Humidity: What indoor humidity should we maintain in order to avoid a mold problem?
- Mold Action Guide detailed guide on finding, removing, and preventing indoor mold contamination
- Odors, Odor Detection, Smells, & Gases how to find and identify sources of noxious or toxic odors and gases
- Other environmental risks, Our much longer list: Asbestos, carbon monoxide, electromagnetic fields, etc.
- Ozone: The Use of Ozone Indoors for Control of Odors and Mold
Removal in Buildings: A Summary of Hazards and False Claims.
- Pollen Allergens: identification, plant pollen and indoor air quality
- Products to Reduce Mold & Allergy Problems to reduce indoor mold or allergen levels: air cleaners, air purifiers, dust mite covers, vacuum cleaners, crawl space vents
- Recognizing Allergens: What various indoor allergens look like - identification photos to help identify pollen, dust mites, animal dander, toxic or allergenic mold - Common Mold and other Allergens, Irritants, Remedies & Advice
- Rodent control issues, including dander, fecal, and urine contamination of Buildings and Building insulation are discussed at our
- Sewage and Septic backup contamination in Buildings: inspection, testing, remediation, & references to expert sources
- Action Guide: What to do about mold, mildew, and other indoor allergens
Mold Contamination Testing, Cleanup, Prevention: references & products
- The Mold Information Center: What to Do About Mold in Buildings, When and How
to Inspect for Mold, Clean Up Mold, or Avoid Mold Problems
- Aerobiology, Building Science, Microscopy, & Laboratory References, an extensive technical bibliography
- Allergens: what they look like in buildings
- Associations: Sick House, Sick Building, SBS - Air Quality, Government, Private Associations and Information Resources
- Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd Ed., GS deHoog, J Guarro, J Gene, & MJ Figueras, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, 2000, ISBN 90-70351-43-9 (you can buy this book at Amazon) - The Atlas of Clinical Fungi is also available on CD ROM
- Atlas of Mold Related Illness: Index of Symptoms and health, physical, neurological, psychological, and other complaint which people suspect may be mold or building-related.
- Atlas of Indoor Mold, Online Clinical Mold Atlas, Toxins, Pathogens, Allergens and Other Indoor Particles - Medical Health Effects of Mold (separate online document)
- Black Mold that is Harmless Photos of recognizable, usually harmless black mold on wood, bluestain, ceratocystis, ophistoma
- Building Floods: quick steps after a building flood or plumbing leak can prevent costly mold contamination
- Classes of Mold: what types of cosmetic, allergenic, or toxic mold are a problem? Can mold be cleaned-up successfully?
- Clinical Mold References - Detailed bibliography of mold reference texts
- "A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home", U.S. Environmental Protection Agency US EPA - includes basic advice for building owners, occupants, and mold cleanup operations. See http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldguide.htm
- "Disease Prevention Program for Certain Vegetable Crops," David B. Langston, Jr., Extension Plant Pathologist - Vegetables, University of Georgia (PDF document) original source: www.reeis.usda.gov/web/crisprojectpages/209797.html
- "Disease Prevention in Home Vegetable Gardens,"
Department of Plant Microbiology and Pathology,
Department of Horticulture, University of Missouri Extension - extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.aspx?P=G6202
- "Management of Powdery Mildew, Leveillula taurica, in Greenhouse Peppers," Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, British Columbia - Original source: www.agf.gov.bc.ca/cropprot/peppermildew.htm
- Environmental Health & Investigation Bibliography - our own technical library on indoor air quality inspection, testing, laboratory procedures, forensic microscopy, etc.
- Fiberglass: Mold in Fiberglass Insulation© 2005 comments about a field study in process, & more about health hazards from fiberglass insulation - DJF
- Fifth Kingdom, Bryce Kendrick, ISBN13: 9781585100224, is available from the InspectAPedia online bookstore - we recommend the CD-ROM version of this book. This 3rd/edition is a compact but comprehensive encyclopedia of all things mycological. Every aspect of the fungi, from aflatoxin to zppspores, with an accessible blend of verve and wit. The 24 chapters are filled with up-to-date information of classification, yeast, lichens, spore dispersal, allergies, ecology, genetics, plant pathology, predatory fungi, biological control, mutualistic symbioses with animals and plants, fungi as food, food spoilage and mycotoxins.
- Fungi, Identifying Filamentous, A Clinical Laboratory Handbook, Guy St-Germain, Richard Summerbell, Star Publishing, 1996, ISBN 0-89863-177-7 (English) (buy at Amazon)
- MOLD in BUILDINGS Procedure: what mold is often found where in buildings - simple technical presentation
- Meruliporia: the house eating fungus or "poria"
- MOLD ACTION GUIDE Step-by-Step Instructions, What to do about mold, mildew, and other indoor allergens
- MOLD APPEARANCE - WHAT MOLD LOOKS LIKE Photos of what mold looks like in buildings
- MOLD APPEARANCE - STUFF THAT IS NOT MOLD Photos of NOT-mold material that is sometimes mistaken for mold
- MOLD ATLAS & PARTICLES INDEX, Pathogens, Allergens and Other Indoor Particles - Medical Health Effects of Mold (separate online document)
- MOLD BY MICROSCOPE Mold under the microscope - photo identification of the most common indoor molds found in buildings
- Mold FAQs Answers to Most Questions about Indoor Mold, Mold Related Illness, Mold Cleanup, Mold Prevention
- US EPA: Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Building [Copy on file at /sickhouse/EPA_Mold_Remediation_in_Schools.pdf ] - US EPA
- Mold spores in the Home - a Photo ID Library for detection and identification of mold allergens
- Mold Test Kits - How to Collect and Send Your Own Mold Sample to our mold testing lab or to any mold lab you wish
- Most Common Indoor Molds Found in Buildings, A Table of
- Mycology, Fundamentals of Diagnostic, Fran Fisher, Norma B. Cook, W.B. Saunders Co. 1998, ISBN 0-7216-5006-6 (buy this book at Amazon)
- Ozone Warnings - Use of Ozone as a "mold" remedy is ineffective and may be dangerous.
- Rot concerns in buildings-some building mold such as Meruliporia incrassata "Poria" risks serious rot and hidden structural damage
- US EPA: Una Breva Guia a Moho - Hongo [Copy on file as /sickhouse/EPA_Moho_Guia_sp.pdf - en Espanol
OTHER IAQ ISSUES: How To Find and Address Other Indoor Air or Indoor Environment Contaminants Besides Mold
Mold or allergens may not be the only or even the main indoor environmental contaminant. Don't let media attention to mold
cause so much enviro-scare fear that other, possibly more urgent hazards go un-addressed.
- Fiberglass building insulation and HVAC duct work insulation hazards
- Sewage and Septic backup contamination in buildings: inspection, testing, remediation, & references to expert sources
- Other environmental risks: Asbestos, carbon monoxide,
electromagnetic fields, environmental illness, fiberglass, MCS - multiple chemical sensitivity, toxic gases, etc
- Indoor Gas Sampling Plan
for Residential Buildings lists a number of toxic indoor gases which we test for, depending on the building
complaint and building conditions
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
- Environmental Health & Investigation Bibliography - our technical library on indoor air quality inspection, testing, laboratory procedures, forensic microscopy, etc.
- Adkins and Adkins Dictionary of Roman Religion discusses Robigus, the Roman god of crop protection and the legendary progenitor of wheat rust fungus.
- Kansas State University, department of plant pathology, extension plant pathology web page on wheat rust fungus: see http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/path-ext/factSheets/Wheat/Wheat%20Leaf%20Rust.asp
- "A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home",
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency US EPA - includes basic advice for building owners, occupants, and mold cleanup operations. See http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldguide.htm
- US EPA - Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Building [ copy on file as /sickhouse/EPA_Mold_Remediation_in_Schools.pdf ] - US EPA
- US EPA - Una Breva Guia a Moho - Hongo [on file as /sickhouse/EPA_Moho_Guia_sp.pdf - - en Espanol