I-JOISTS, Wood Roof Floor - CONTENTS:
Definitions & photos of wood I-Joists used in roof and floor framing. Examples of I-Joist framing mistakes and defects, Examples of avoiding cutting the I-joist center web to pass plumbing or HVAC . Components, Photos of I-Joist hangers
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This article defines "wood I-Joists" and illustrates the uses and installation of wood I-Joists used in residential building floor and roof construction. This article series describes wood products used in construction including engineered lumber, OSB, and Plywood products. Also see FRAMING CONNECTORS & JOIST HANGERS for a discussion of special fasteners used when framing with wood I-joists.
Our photo (below left) illustrates wood I-joists used in construction of building floors and roofs. You will observe that the center web of the I-joist is constructed of OSB sheathing material that we illustrated just above. Our second photo (below right) shows common lumber markings found on the solid wood top and bottom chords of wood I-joists. [Click any image to see an enlarged, detailed version]
Engineered wood floor trusses (photos above and below) such as I-Joists originally were constructed using a plywood web beginning in 1977, and modified by by Trus-Joist in 1969 to use laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and OSB-like laminated wood fiber web (shown in photos above left and below in combination with a steel beam).
Watch out: common construction defects involving wood I-Joists include improper size or placement of holes cut in the I-joist web to permit installation of wiring, plumbing, or ductwork.
Improper location or size of holes, notches, or even removal of the center web can cause substantial weakening of the structure and are violations of both the manufacturer's instructions and building codes.
Below our photos of I-joists used to support a building floor illustrate how the builder avoided most cuts in the i-joist webs: flex duct and plumbing were laid out to move between I-joists rather than through them, and where an HVAC duct trunk line had to run at right angles to the I-joists the builder suspended it below the I-joists.
This was a much better solution than we found at a different job where the builder removed entire sections of I-joist web to run large rectangular HVAC ducts!
Our wood I-joist photo at above right illustrates the use of doubled or paired wood I-joists and special steel connectors (I-Joist hangers) designed to support doubled I-joists where they abut a girder or beam.
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Questions & answers or comments about selecting, specifying, & constructing with & defect inspections of wood I-Joists for building floors & roofs.
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Steven Bliss served as editorial director and co-publisher of The Journal of Light Construction for 16 years and previously as building technology editor for Progressive Builder and Solar Age magazines. He worked in the building trades as a carpenter and design/build contractor for more than ten years and holds a masters degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Excerpts from his recent book, Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, Wiley (November 18, 2005) ISBN-10: 0471648361, ISBN-13: 978-0471648369, appear throughout this website, with permission and courtesy of Wiley & Sons. Best Practices Guide is available from the publisher, J. Wiley & Sons, and also at Amazon.com
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APA - The Engineered Wood Association, 7011 So. 19th St., PO Box 11700, Tacoma WA 98411-0700, Tel: 253-565-7265. APA provides an HDO/MDO Plywood Product Guide that offers details about these products., provides an HDO/MDO Plywood Product Guide that offers details about these products. Product support help desk: 253-620-7400. Email the APA at email@example.com. Web search 09/13/2010, original source: http://www.pacificwoodlaminates.com/img/PDFs/PlywoodGuide.pdf
John Rudy, Advantage Home Inspections, Flemington N.J. 08822 home inspector, 908-806- 6364, Home, Radon & Termite Inspections, Central & Parts of North New Jersey, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Laminated Veneer Lumber, Overview of the Product, Manufacturing, Market, Department of Forest Products Marketing, wood-Based Panels Technology, Finland [PDF] web search 09/14/2010, original source: http://www.hochstrate.de/micha/finnland/reports/replvl.html
Malco® Products siding tools are available from that company, including the SideSwiper II SRT2 discussed at Malco's website. Websearch 09/07/2010 http://malcoproducts.com/product/roofing-siding-gutter/siding-vinyl/siding-tools-vinyl/sideswiper-ii. Malco also produces other vinyl siding repair tools such as aprons, awls, hole punches, saw blades, and tools for for fiber cement products including power-assisted cutters
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
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Design of Wood Structures - ASD, Donald E. Breyer, Kenneth Fridley, Kelly Cobeen, David Pollock, McGraw Hill, 2003, ISBN-10: 0071379320, ISBN-13: 978-0071379328
This book is an update of a long-established text dating from at least 1988 (DJF); Quoting: This book is gives a good grasp of seismic design for wood structures. Many of the examples especially near the end are good practice for the California PE Special Seismic Exam design questions. It gives a good grasp of how seismic forces move through a building and how to calculate those forces at various locations.THE CLASSIC TEXT ON WOOD DESIGN UPDATED TO INCLUDE THE LATEST CODES AND DATA. Reflects the most recent provisions of the 2003 International Building Code and 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Continuing the sterling standard set by earlier editions, this indispensable reference clearly explains the best wood design techniques for the safe handling of gravity and lateral loads. Carefully revised and updated to include the new 2003 International Building Code, ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, the 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, and the most recent Allowable Stress Design.
Diagnosing & Repairing House Structure Problems, Edgar O. Seaquist, McGraw Hill, 1980 ISBN 0-07-056013-7 (obsolete, incomplete, missing most diagnosis steps, but very good reading; out of print but used copies are available at Amazon.com, and reprints are available from some inspection tool suppliers). Ed Seaquist was among the first speakers invited to a series of educational conferences organized by D Friedman for ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors, where the topic of inspecting the in-service condition of building structures was first addressed.
Defects and Deterioration in Buildings: A Practical Guide to the Science and Technology of Material Failure, Barry Richardson, Spon Press; 2d Ed (2001), ISBN-10: 041925210X, ISBN-13: 978-0419252108. Quoting: A professional reference designed to assist surveyors, engineers, architects and contractors in diagnosing existing problems and avoiding them in new buildings. Fully revised and updated, this edition, in new clearer format, covers developments in building defects, and problems such as sick building syndrome. Well liked for its mixture of theory and practice the new edition will complement Hinks and Cook's student textbook on defects at the practitioner level.