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Free Encyclopedia of Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, Repair
STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS & DEFECTS
ARTICLE INDEX to ANIMAL PESTS, ALLERGENS, HAZARDS
ARTICLE INDEX to BUILDING DAMAGE, DISASTER, REPAIR
ARTICLE INDEX to BUILDING DECKS & PORCHES
ARTICLE INDEX to BUILDING FIRE SAFETY
ARTICLE INDEX to BUILDING FLOOD DAMAGE
ARTICLE INDEX to BUILDING LEAKS & WATER ENTRY
ARTICLE INDEX to CRAWL SPACES
ARTICLE INDEX to INSECT DAMAGE
ARTICLE INDEX to SINKHOLES
ARCHITECTURE & BUILDING COMPONENT ID
BEAMS, CRACKS CHECKS SPLITTING
BRICK FOUNDATIONS & WALLS
BUILDING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT & REPAIR
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
COLUMNS & POSTS, DEFECTS
CONCRETE DELIVERY & MIXING
CONCRETE FOUNDATION, WALL, SLAB DEFECTS
CONNECTORS, FASTENERS, TIES
DECK & PORCH CONSTRUCTION
DEFINITIONS of MOBILE HOME, DOUBLEWIDE
MODULAR, PANELIZED CONSTRUCTION
DEFINITIONS of ENGINEERED WOOD OSB LVL etc
DISASTER BUILDING INSPECTION & REPAIR
EARTHQUAKE DAMAGED FOUNDATIONS
FIRE DAMAGED BUILDINGS, ASSESSMENT, REPAIR - home
FIRE DAMAGE vs MOLD DAMAGE
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FLOOR FRAMING & SUBFLOOR
FOOTING & FOUNDATION DRAINS
FOUNDATION CRACKS & DAMAGE GUIDE
FOUNDATION REPAIR METHODS
FRAMING CONNECTORS & JOIST HANGERS
FRAMING DAMAGE, INSPECTION, REPAIR - home
FRAMING FASTENERS, NAILS, SCREWS, & HIDDEN
FRAMING MATERIALS, Age, Types
FRAMING SIZE & Spacing, Age, Types
FRAMING TABLES, SPANS for DECKS
GRADING, DRAINAGE & SITE WORK
HOUSE PARTS, DEFINITIONS
INSECT INFESTATION / DAMAGE
KIT HOMES, Aladdin, Sears, Wards, Others
LOG HOME GUIDE
MOBILE HOMES, DOUBLEWIDES, TRAILERS - home
MODULAR HOME CONSTRUCTION
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS - home
PORCH CONSTRUCTION & SCREENING
PRE-CUT & KIT HOMES
RETAINING WALL DESIGNS, TYPES, DAMAGE
ROT, FUNGUS, INSECT DAMAGE
SINKHOLES, WARNING SIGNS
STAIRS, RAILINGS, LANDINGS, RAMPS
STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION
STRESS SKIN INSULATED PANELS
STRUCTURAL WOOD ASSESSMENT
TIMBER FRAMING, ROT
TRUSSES, FLOOR & ROOF
WALL CONSTRUCTION BARRIER vs CAVITY
WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS
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This article describes and illustrates different types of marks found on old wood boards and beams:
adze and axe marks, hand sawn lumber, mechanical pit-sawn lumber, circular saw cut marks, and modern planed or sanded smooth dimensional lumber. We include a table of modern dimensional lumber nominal and actual sizes for kiln dried and treated wood.
We include research citations assisting in understanding the history and development of the mechanically-operated reciprocating saw or a mechanical and often portable replacement for the hand-operated "pit saw".
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Generations of types of saws used in cutting beams, and similar details are readily available on many buildings and offer both clues to building age and wonderful aesthetic detail.
Below, in rough chronological order, we illustrate different types of saw and tool cut marks in wood: adze cuts, hand sawn pit saw marks, mechanically-operated pit saw marks, circular saw marks, and unmarked, planed modern dimensional lumber.
Adze cut marks in wood - hand hewn beams and planks
Table of Modern Framing Lumber Dimensions
Kiln Dried Size
(S4S - smooth)
|Pressure Treated (wet) Size (SYP) "S4" Extended Life Lumber||Rough Cut not Kiln Dried Size|
|2x2||1-1/2 x 1-1/2||Actual size in depth (width) varies +/- 1/4"||Actual size in depth (width) varies +/- 1/2"|
|2x3||1-1/2 x 2-1/4|
|2x4||1-1/2 x 3-1/2|
|2x6||1-1/2 x 5-1/2|
|2x8||1-1/2 x 7-1/4|
|2x10||1-1/2 x 9-1/4|
|2x12||1-1/2 x 11-1/2|
|4x4||3-1/2 x 3-1/2|
|6x6||5-1/2 x 5-1/2|
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