Free Encyclopedia of Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, Repair
Ask a Question or Search InspectAPedia
InspectAPedia ® Home
STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS & DEFECTS
ARCHITECTURE & BUILDING COMPONENT ID
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
COLUMNS & POSTS, DEFECTS
CONNECTORS, FASTENERS, TIES
DECK & PORCH CONSTRUCTION
DEFINITIONS of Mobile Home, Doublewide, Modular, Panelized
DEFINITIONS of ENGINEERED WOOD OSB LVL etc
DISASTER BUILDING INSPECTION & REPAIR
EARTHQUAKE DAMAGED FOUNDATIONS
FIRE DAMAGE vs MOLD DAMAGE
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FOOTING & FOUNDATION DRAINS
FOUNDATION CRACKS & DAMAGE GUIDE
FRAMING DAMAGE, INSPECTION, REPAIR
GRADING, DRAINAGE & SITE WORK
HOUSE PARTS, DEFINITIONS
INSECT INFESTATION / DAMAGE
KIT HOMES, Aladdin, Sears, Wards, Others
LOG HOME GUIDE
MOBILE HOMES, DOUBLEWIDES, TRAILERS
MODULAR HOME CONSTRUCTION
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
PORCH CONSTRUCTION & SCREENING
PRE-CUT & KIT HOMES
RETAINING WALL DESIGNS, TYPES, DAMAGE
ROT, FUNGUS, INSECT DAMAGE
SINKHOLES, WARNING SIGNS
STAIRS, RAILINGS, LANDINGS, RAMPS
STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION
STRESS SKIN INSULATED PANELS
STRUCTURAL WOOD ASSESSMENT
TIMBER FRAMING, ROT
TRUSSES, Floor & Roof
WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS
Termites & termite damage inspection, treatment, prevention: termite information in depth, including termite inspection case reports, field photos and advice. This article discusses how to recognize termites & termite damage, & how to cure or prevent termite damage on buildings. This article provides termite damage photographs, termite inspection advice, and lists additional articles that discuss the inspection, detection, prevention, and repair of structural damage from termites. We describe the use of termite control by bait traps, chemical poisons, and termite shields, and we include photos & warnings about amateur termite treatments. Preventing these problems by good design and by building maintenance is preferred to simple chemical applications around a property. When use of pesticides is required, there are some important choices.
Green links show where you are. © Copyright 2013 InspectAPedia.com, All Rights Reserved. Author Daniel Friedman.
More installation details for termite shields and other building flashing can be found at FLASHING WALL DETAILS. Readers concerned about termite damage associated with foam, fiberglass, or other building insulation materials should also see Insects & Foam Insulation. Also see TERMITE SHIELDS vs TERMITICIDE for a discussion of termite shields and insect attack on buildings using foam board foundation insulation. At Pesticide Exposure Hazards we discuss the health hazards of some pesticides found or used inside of buildings and we suggest how to reduce that risk.
Also see SLAB INSULATION, PASSIVE SOLAR. Readers should also see INSULATION LOCATION for CAPES, CRAWLSPACES, and may also be interested in the mold resistance properties of Icynene Foam Spray Insulation. Finally, because insect damage on buildings is very often related to locations of water leaks or moisture traps, readers should also see WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS.
[Referring to the termite damage photos shown just below] I found this termite damage in a house yesterday. The shelter tubes were so large, they were hanging out of the wood.
The termites have been in this house for many years, and this sign is that there is a large infestation that has caused sever damage to the house.
The main 10x12 center structural beam was so damaged, that about 3/4 of it will have to be replaced.
This is a significant structural issue with a house. If the homeowners had known what to look for, this may have been caught before the damage was so severe. As you can see form the cob webs, they rarely went there, and did not clean well, so the damage was missed until it was severe.
We provide a more lengthy case study of a termite inspection that found severe, covered-up and improperly-repaired termite damage at Termite Damage Case - Severe Damage. There photographs show a sequence of clues leading to the discovery of the termite problem.
Our termite damage photograph at below left illustrates that carpenter ant activity (frass or loose "sawdust) may be found in the same location as termite activity (the mud tubes).
Our second termite mud tube photo (above right) is more clear and shows branching termite mud tubes running along the surface of a floor joist.
Watch out: termites prefer to tunnel inside of wood and can cause extensive damage without appearing readily on the wood surface. Mud tubes are typically built to enable movement across a less hospitable surface such as masonry walls or wood that was just not so nice to penetrate. Termites had traveled extensively in the ceiling joist shown in our photo at below-left. The sill plates located on the floor in this same room were also infested (photo below right).
Below our termite mud tube photos illustrate how extensive branching mud tubes may be found on building foundation walls headed for wood framing members and even along metal pipes. At below left it appears that termites entered through a crack in the foundation wall, then built mud tubes upwards looking for a more hospitable wood material.
Below our termite mud tube photos illustrate the importance of a careful, expert termite inspection. The mud tubes at below left are close to and tightly located against the junction of subfloor and rim joist, and the butt end of a floor joist and rim joist and are not as easy to spot as our earlier termite photographs.
And at below right we demonstrate that termites might run along the interior of an old wooden beam; we found these termite tunnels by probing inside the large open checking or splits that would normally be considered not a structural concern, but adding termite damage can change that evaluation. See Splits in Structural Wood Beams for more about log and beam checking or splitting.
At left is a closeup photograph of "mud" extracted from termite damaged oak floor - we discuss the inspection and detection of severe termite damage in added detail at TERMITE INSPECTION & DAMAGE ASSESSMENT
Our photograph at below left shows two signs that should tip off any inspector of a high risk of hidden insect damage: the wood siding is brought close to the ground, perhaps also at a building corner where a downspout or roof drainage spills. Water plus wood plus proximity to the ground surface add up to a high risk of insect attack.
Add the observation that an amateur-workmanship wood "skirt" was nailed against the bottom of the foundation, very possibly covering up damage, and this is a red flag for termite or carpenter ant attack.
Our second insect damage risk indicator is the photo at below right: a collection of pesticides, some of them perhaps old and no longer permitted for use by homeowners, found in the building is often a clue that termite or other insect poisoning or treatment was performed by someone other than a licensed pest control applicator - risking not only incompetent ineffective work, but possibly environmental contamination that can be a risk even to the building occupants.
When observing termite damage such as in the wood framing members in our photo at below left, an expert will explore adjacent members (probing and visual inspection) as well as the infected members to discover the extent of damage. At above right our screwdriver has fully penetrated the sill plate at the bottom of an interior partition wall in a home where we found extensive termite damage. And at below right our screwdriver penetrates the termite-infested wall stud between the sill and ceiling. [Click to enlarge any of our images.]
Wood destroying insects may enter a single wood member such as a floor joist and travel along just that member, or depending on site conditions and age of the WDI infestation, many structural members may be involved.
Photo Guide to Drywood Termites & Other Insects that attack wood structural components above ground and in dry climates
The photographs of drywood termites and termite damage shown here illustrate termite damage in the Southeastern U.S. (Old Tucson, AZ) and Central Mexico (San Miguel de Allende, GTO).
Then I swiped my shoe over the mud trails (below left) that I saw in the dirt, but there were no termites in any of them. Where did they go? The other time I kicked open a termite mud tube there were at least 50 Arizona termites squirming in the mud (below right).
[Mara Gieseke's termite photo (above right) shows Arizona termites squirming in the sunlight just after she disturbed their ground-surface mud tube. We have enlarged this photo to make the termites easier to see, but notice how difficult it is to spot them against the sandy soil found in the Tucson area. How big are termites in actual life-size?
If you could get these termites to line up in single file and march across a U.S. dime, you'd see that if they marched along the diameter of the dime there would be at least five of them. Typical termites are 5.5 mm in length but vary in size from about 1/8" long to as much as 3/8" for the big boys.
Queen termites are bigger, over 3/4" in length excluding a pregnant queen's abdomen that, if included can make her total size 2" or even more. There are about 2800 termite species that have been identified, grouped in seven families (including the largest family, Termitidae), and it is probable that there are other species not yet classified.]
The retaining wall is 20 feet from the house, and we found tubes growing vertically in the grass too. I also got a picture of a section of dirt that has lots of those mud trails.
We've have never had termite activity inside the house. The first year that we lived here we had to have the pest control people out here several times to treat the expansion joint where the back patio meets the house.
A local exterminator visited this site and identified the termites in our photographs above as Desert Surface Termites [or by some sources just "desert termites" or Gnathamitermes tubiformans.] Gieseke passed on these details: desert surface termites, according to local exterminator Truly Nolen, are fatter than other types of termites. They do not attack structures. If you were to leave a 2x6 piece of wood in the yard, they would cover it with their mud but they would not eat into it. They would just eat the very outer layer.
Bottom line: desert termites may not attack your building, but they may eat your plants. Details are at Desert Termites.
Gieseke's photos below show the mud tubes of Desert Surface Termites on the ground surface near Tucson AZ.
More about Desert Termites is provided at our references below.
In general, termites' natural home is in the soil where they attack wood below ground, coming up to higher wood found where there is convenient access, and, depending on the species, moisture.
Your termites are almost certainly subterranean termites as you are finding them living in the ground. (Drywood termites, unlike subterranean termites, do not require direct access to a moisture source and are often found attacking wood above ground level.) Perhaps when you first disturbed the mud tubes on the ground, soil moisture had been so great (following recent rain in Tucson) that your local subterranean termites were coming to the ground surface.
In most of the U.S. only subterranean termites are found, but along the U.S. southern border (including southern Arizona) and further south, both drywood and subterranean termites may be found. In North america north of the U.S. termite damage is less common.
Disturbing a termite mud tube is shown just below. They won't bite you, but some genera/species of termites will indeed bite a wood structure or its wood siding or trim. If you disturb a mud tube and termites fall out you know for sure you've found an active colony. Unfortunately the converse is not necessarily true. If you disturb a mud tube and don't see any termites, you'll need more information and probably a more expert inspection before you know if there is ongoing termite activity or not.
Drill Marks or Old Containers May Mean Amateur Termite or Other Insect Extermination Attempts that May be Unsafe
Below left our photograph shows homeowner-drilled holes in a building rim joist - perimeter framing. This do-it-yourself termite treatment involved drilling and spraying a termiticide or chemical onto and into the wood.
Because of the age of the home (1700's) and amateur work, we were concerned that Chlordane, a toxic, now banned termiticide may have been used as this chemical was previously available for easy purchase in home and garden centers.
Indeed, our test-cut sliver of test wood taken rom the rim joist was confirmed by a chemical test laboratory as having been soaked with Chlordane - a toxic chemical with a long half-life. The building needed further evaluation for the extent of chemical contamination in order to decide if remediation (removal or sealing of treated wood) would be needed.
Our second termite treatment clue photograph (above right) shows a drill mark in a concrete and slate patio outside and abutting a home foundation wall. Regularly spaced drill openings, 18" to 24" apart in a concrete basement floor slab set just inside the foundation wall, or around the outside of a foundation where sidewalks, driveways or patios are installed, are a likely indicator that a professional PCO has pumped a termiticide barrier around the building.
This means you will want to inspect the structure for prior termite damage in order to be sure that further repairs or treatment are not needed.
At Carpenter Bee Holes & Powder Post Beetle Holes we show other holes in wood that are made by insects but that are sometimes mistaken for electric drill holes.
See PESTICIDE EXPOSURE HAZARDS for details about the health hazards of exposure to pesticides used or applied indoors.
Details about powder post beetles and old house borer insect damage on buildings are at POWDER POST BEETLES. Excerpts are below.
At Drill Marks we show drill marks in wood caused by an amateur pest treatment attempt. While to an experienced eye, holes in wood caused by insects are easily distinguished from those caused by humans using a drill or hammer and nail, on occasion someone is fooled. Here we illustrate two cases of holes that are caused by insects, not mechanical events on buildings: powder post beetle holes in wood, and carpenter bee holes in wood.
In our powder post beetle photos above, while there was significant beam damage, the infestation did not appear active.
Powder post beetle damage is typically treated with a topical insecticide spray. Some pest control operators (PCOs) also spray paint the wood surfaces in order to make it easier to spot a renewal of insect activity in the future.
We look for the presence of fine wood powder around the insect exit holes or on the ground below the damaged infected member as indications of recent insect activity.
See POWDER POST BEETLES for details about this topic.
One method for stopping or avoiding termite attack on buildings involves the placement of termite bait traps around the building. Our photo (below left) illustrates a termite bait trap set outside and close to a stone foundation wall. At below right we see termite bait traps spread at a typical interval around a building that had been subject to termite attack.
Watch out: don't assume that because there is a masonry block, brick, or stone foundation that a building is termite proof, even when there is good clearance between the soil top and wood framing. With sufficient invitation (leaks, water) termites find easy passages trough stone, concrete block and brick foundation walls to wood framed sills, rim joists, and floor structures above.
Watch out: If the termite bait trap system is not being regularly inspected, you have put out termite-attracting wood around the building perimeter without following through with the proper steps, and in our OPINION you may actually have increased the risk of a termite attack. Be sure your termite bait trap system is being inspected regularly. If we see termite bait traps that are abandoned, overgrown, covered with leaves and debris we know that the traps are not being inspected regularly.
See TERMITE SHIELDS vs TERMITICIDE for details about comparing methods of preventing termite attack on buildings. Below are two photographs of termite bait traps to help you recognize termite bait traps when you see them. This approach avoids placing a chemical barrier around the building to stop or prevent termite attacks.
As discussed in Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction:
Below our termite mud tube photos show that a termite shield appears to have been installed along most but not all of the building foundation top. Or was it? We don't know if this is wall flashing that leaves sills exposed just under the wall edge, or whether the flashing extends across the foundation to the interior (as recommended).
But our second termite photo (below right) shows a termite mud tube ascending the same foundation wall and passing under the termite shield. The shield makes it more difficult, but not impossible, for termites to attack a building.
More installation details for termite shields and other building flashing can be found at FLASHING WALL DETAILS.
Also see TERMITE SHIELDS vs TERMITICIDE for a discussion of termite shields and insect attack on buildings using foam board foundation insulation.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about termites, carpenter ants and other wood destroying insects or wood-rotting fungus attacks on buildings: cause, effect, evaluation, prevention
Question: Do wood forms left between a footing and stem wall increase the risk of a termite attack on the building?
Reply: Yes in many instances. Best practice is to remove wood forms close to or in contact with the soil around a building. Don't leave wood buried around a building.
Follow-Up on wood concrete forms and termites:
I spoke with building official this morning and inspector told me that it is ok to buried forms as long as pressure treated. Attached is the picture of foundation footing and stem wall with forming wood in between. I guess this became standard for new construction. - T.N.
That's an interesting position and while it is defensible,
I note in your site photo (above left) at the right hand arrow that there is a blue tag appearing to be stapled to the end of the piece of wood - perhaps indicating that the wood is pressure treated and insect resistant, though quite frankly it looks to me as if the tag was added after construction as it 's clean and it's in a position where surely it would become coated with concrete during the footing pour. Take a closer look at the wood for evidence that it was pressure treated.
1. I have not seen a construction project that used treated wood for ordinary foundation forms
2. even if treated wood were used for a foundation form, I am doubtful that the concrete crew followed the treated wood manufacturer's recommendations that include that every single cut needs additional treatment on the exposed cut ends.
3. I have excavated treated wood and found that it is hardly insect proof, it is insect resistant. I have had ample cases of severe termite damage to pressure treated posts, for example.
In sum, in my OPINION leaving the wood forms in place may be "OK" or "legal" with your local code inspectors, but that doesn't mean it's the best practice, nor that you should guarantee the building owners that there won't be a future insect attack through that avenue.
Questions & answers or comments about termites, carpenter ants and other wood destroying insects or wood-rotting fungus attacks on buildings: cause, effect, evaluation, prevention
Ask a Question or Enter Search Terms in the InspectApedia search box just below.
Technical Reviewers & References
Related Topics, found near the top of this page suggest articles closely related to this one.